Terror of aloneness, based on early experiences, is also often responded to with addictive behaviors. One more factor that may contribute to the status of addictive personality is that Sigmund Freud was extremely addicted to patients with addictive character styles require much more substantial treatments where the focus is on responding to conflicts and stresses without resorting to addictive behaviors. (Johnson,
In the context of addiction, one would be considered under these terms when over using drugs and alcohol, not just occasionally using them or being prescribed something. Addiction is a self inflicted disease which occurs when one initially decides to make the decision to immediate them. As a result of the usually voluntary act, the repetition of abusing the substance results in brain challenges. This is the basis of why these addictions are called diseases. The brain accumulates the need for the substance, eventually becoming not only a mental need but sometimes a physical need.
But, what if it doesn’t work? This question is addressed in the third section of the article. For that reason, the author writes with a rhetoric of pathos to encourage the reader to persevere and also purchase Naloxone, a drug which can alter the effects of opioids in case of emergency. Since addiction is an emotional subject, this section of the article contains much pathos rhetoric
The narrative approach compartmentalizes problems in people’s lives in order for the individual to emerge from the merged view of disorders and this allows one to begin to see a new perspective. This is a drastic shift from the individual, which leads people to be seen as solely being responsible for their problems, allows someone to consider existing separate from their problem. (Gardner & Poole, 2009). The Narrative approach is most suitable for people with substance abuse disorders because substance abuse is a socially constructed problem and a problem many feel view as being merged with. The Narrative approach is helpful in dealing with addiction among older people because it deals with the social stigma attached to substance
One may have to resolve the conflict in order to pass on to another stage. Ego and superego are as well developing when people are passing through the psychosexual stages in order to control the Id and solve the conflict in each stage. Freud’s idea of psychosexual theory is a great contribution to the developments of
A core concept of the biomedical medical model is that drug addiction is a brain disease that manifests over time after the voluntary use of heroin, this results in modifying brain mechanisms that control mood, perception and emotional states causing drug seeking behaviours that interfere with the functioning of the individual (Leshner, 1999). Through medical advances brain imaging studies support physical changes in areas of the brain that are critical to judgment, decision making, and behaviour control (Fowler et al.,
Substances such as cocaine, heroin, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis), and methamphetamine are known to cause severe addiction. The effects of drugs on a human health and psychology may come in many forms. Cocaine and methamphetamine can cause nerve cells to overproduce natural neurotransmitter or prevent the natural cycling of the brain hormones, typically dopamine. As such, this may create an unusual behaviour in the brain reward system which may cause the ability of the user to halt the drug used is compromised. The user is said to be addicted and the ability to make voluntary choices is being compromised resulting in taking drugs as a psychological and physical need.
The use of drugs is a moral defect or lack of willpower. These ideas shape the government. Policy on drug control. Breakthrough discoveries about the brain change our understanding of the dangers of using drugs. The use of drugs has disrupted our families, schools and communities, limiting young people's hopes and dreams.
The most important change implemented by the ONDCP was their increased focus on the needs of their target audience through market segmentation. They recognized that drugs differ in classes, consequences, and have different perceived risks associated with them. Therefore the ONDCP proposed that ads be developed with the awareness that adolescents hold different beliefs about various drugs and the social consequences associated with abusing them. It was recommended that the new messages be designed to target specific age groups, ethnic audiences, and individuals of different socio-economic status and geographic location. The most effective segmentation would have been age specific since adolescents and adults may perceive drug use differently, and have different reasons for their drug use i.e.
The first multiple times a person uses drugs it’s their choice. When someone continuously uses drugs the chemical balance in their brain changes. Prolonged drug use will lead to addiction. Drug addiction is classified as a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively see out drugs, despite the harm they cause while doing so. Addicts often relapse due to the fact that the chemical changes made in the brain, are lasting ones.