In particular, this perspective has suggested that the distinctively rapid growth of the brain and the immaturity of dentition and digestive tracts characteristic of the early stages of human life have evolved over time to sustain human society. Such a view is consistent with an essentialist or universal view of childhood (that prioritizes biology over environment in explaining childhood) but has also recognized that social conditions and ecology play a part in constructing the social and cultural response to childhood. Somewhat related to bio-social theories, the perspective of evolutionary psychology came to regard childhood as directly linked to the evolution of what has been called a psychology of PARENTING. This theory suggests that certain universal characteristics of infants and young children, such
Typically, the standards and beliefs of an ideal childhood (safe, happy and guarded) are shaped culturally and historically by the social fixations and concerns of nations such as Europe and the United States (Boyden, 2009). However, Burman (2008) mentions that the conceptualisation of childhood being perceived as a duration of innocence and happiness is often regarded as ‘lost’ or ‘stolen’ and that the weakened children to form a diversified representation of victimhood. Images of ‘stolen childhood’ are specifically important strategy in sociologists’ plans targeted at showing the seriousness of certain issues and at preparing limited resources in support of children (Poretti et al, 2014). As mentioned above that childhood is socially constructed, childhood within a particular context and social norms are differentiated by societies and saturated by power issues (Woodhead,
Sociological perspective helps us to understand how society is important in shaping our everyday lives. The US Sociologist goes on to explain that the concept of race ‘appeals to biological based human characteristics’. At the same time the focus on particular human physical features (such as skin colour, hair, and so on), in order to indicate race, ‘is always and necessarily a social and historical process’ (Winant 2000). It is important to note that sociological theories of race do not pay much attention to the physical features that are associated in the popular imagination with the concept of race. The sociological approach does indeed recognise that some groups of people tend to have darker skin than the others, or differently shaped and coloured hair, and they may tend to be taller and leaner or shorter and heavier.
Through the work of the author, the thoughts of the collective unconscious which are in the form of archetypes are showcased. 3. However, it cannot be denied that in the backgrounds and utmost inference of the writer’s works his personal psychology may possibly be drawn. D. Although archetypal analysis might not be the most appropriate method to conduct such an undertaking, Jung’s analytical psychology would prove Rotor’s aim is to justify life through his short stories. II.
Part B: Comparison The study of childhood being an important and character-shaping portion of one’s life that is set completely apart from the other phases of life is a relatively new interest within western societies (Plastow, 2014). The theorist Philippe Aries argued that in the middle ages there was no such thing as childhood, and that children were treated as adults both legally and in employment (Cunningham, 2014). The many varying sociological, technological and economic changes in the last two centuries has enacted a shift in the definition and experiences of what is it to be a child (Arthur et al, 2015). In this modern era, it is paramount to understand the reasons why we need to view and comprehend the composition and significance of childhood. Becoming aware of how we view children is parallel to the way one
They have a significant influence on children’s socio-cultural development outside the family environment. Klein ( 1976) postulates that everything we read affects the way we think, considerably, the texts children are exposed to have a big influence on their thoughts and attitudes. Therefore writers should consider excluding stereotypes such as gender and racial stereotypes, from texts for children because the presence of stereotypical views can cause problems throughout children’s development. According to Sutherland (1997) children’s literature has been used to improve language literacy and inventive thinking skills. He further goes on to say that it works as character development tool to shape behavior and attitudes.
The term childhood is a term with a variety of aspects and facets and carries no one definition. Childhood has been viewed different globally over different periods of time. It is very subjective and variations in biological make up, economic status and the environment lead to individual differences in children’s paths of life and resulting competencies. Nature and nurture both contribute towards shaping the childhood experiences which are increasingly diversified .Thoughts, feelings and behaviour as a whole is affected by the wide variety of influences in biology, social and cultural context. ( Stearns 2006).
Through the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory, Bronfenbrenner stressed the importance of studying a child in the context of multiple environments, also known as ecological systems in the attempt to understand his development. A child typically finds himself simultaneously enmeshed in different ecosystems, from the most intimate home ecological system moving outward to the larger school system and the most expansive system which is society and culture. Each of these systems inevitably interact with and influence each other in every aspect of the child’s life. The Urie Bronfenbrenner model organizes contexts of development into five levels of external influence. The levels are categorized from the most intimate level to the broadest.
I questioned if childhood is a constructive development of my environment, or the embodiment of nature? To truly answer this question, I would need the help of Pressler. Pressler proved some characteristic of the development of a child and their relationship between the child and the parents “in medieval society the idea of childhood did
Literature Review Literature review renders an immense significance in the comprehension of this dissertation topic. The research initiated by engaging into a study on street children by SPARSC “Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Child.” They presented a report by studying the magnitude of issues regarding street children. Moreover, they did a research on the characteristics of street children including age, ethnic and religious profiles. The survey includes the study on quality of life of street children and factors that push those children to work and live on streets. The factors include domestic violence, which results in negative memories attached to the home environment.