The shifts were able to produced three evolving status for political philosophy starting from its formation up to the present times. For its first status, political philosophy was held in veneration after its promising formation when it gave way to the formation of political theory. Through this the latter enterprise became the most prominent activity in the study of politics. Also, it was able to prescribe certain norms on the political order in a more systematic way. The next status of political philosophy, suffered a dangerous position of being eradicated in the inquiry of politics because of the behavioral revolution.
The development of thought led to the condition of the political science being a multidiscipline rooted in philosophy and theory. Despite the fact that conflicts arise, political philosophy with its revival continuously characterize an aspect of political science being value-laden. Political philosophy might have been disregarded for its conception of reflection as well as the values and even questioned for its relevance in the field. However, it is for a fact that in order for a discipline to grow, it must look back to its origin in order to find its identity and true essence. The study of politics characterized by changing theories and methods as well as the existence of political philosophy as its bedrock serves as a reminder that political science is a field not limited to the ideal conception rather, the field seeks to tackle the ideal and provide practical methods and knowledge to obtain the definition of the
THE TEMPEST: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ON SHAKESPEARE’S LAST PLAY Political Philosophy is a wide branch of philosophy that focuses statements and arguments involving political opinion. It is all about state, politics itself, liberty, justice and the idea of authority. It tackles the meaning of government, what makes a government just, the freedom of its underman, duties of the citizens and other political stuff. This type of philosophy is being practiced since it was discovered and has two reasons. First is the method and approach the philosopher and second is the philosopher 's agenda that made him came up with the methods he used.
“What is Philosophy?” by Simon Blackburn According to Simon Blackburn, philosophy can be different things depending on how it’s used, and it can be used many different ways. When used as a method, philosophy studies the same world as science, but uses rational arguments as proof rather than scientific observations. Although, when thought of as a subject matter rather than a method, philosophy becomes a specific area of study, trying to answer questions that have not yet been answered and concern humanity using the three foundational philosophical questions: what exists, what do we know, and what should we do. These are the basic questions philosophers use to prove their arguments. The third way to use philosophy, according to Blackburn, is as an attitude, or way of thinking.
Research philosophy Research philosophy lay down the background of how researchers understand the world, the choice of research philosophy reflect our knowledge, experiences, preconceptions, and research capability. Thus our knowledge, experiences and etc., which underpin the philosophy choice, will determine our research paradigm, strategy, design and method. (Saunders et al., 2009, p. 128-129). When Bryman describes ontology view, he introduces the objectivism and constructivism as two antithetical dimensions. (p22) However, Saunders 2009 p.119 advocates that positivism can be understood through both ontology and epistemology views.
They recognize Kant’s emphasis on the gap between our conception of the world (epistemology) and the real world that exists outside of our mind and independent of our conception of it (ontology). And like Kant, they agree that our conception of the empirical world though affected by the empirical world is more largely creatively shaped by our conceptual schemes or background knowledge, pre-formed regulative postulates or assumptions. For the pragmatist, therefore, our cognition is theory-laden (See CP 5.526). We do not have immediate intuitive knowledge of the world that is certain since our knowledge is always mediated (by concepts and descriptions ) or inferential, always involving interpretations and colligations of interpretation (See CP. 2.442).
In addition, he was influenced by Communist party and he worked as a journalist he wrote a number of books and articles about capitalism, state, and society. Marx was one of the most intelligible and perspective critics. However, the study of political sociology refer to the interrelationship between both politics and society and somehow this relationship cannot be separated between both of them or it is hard to separate between both politics and society, because they are interrelated. As a result, of this interconnection between both politics and society there is a social relationship between both of them which lead to reform in the society and make the community a better place for living within a welfare for the people. In this way, the definition of Political sociology is apprehensive with the social basis of power in all institutional sectors of society.
Lasswell’s definition of politics has been in the past supported by prominent political scientists such as Abraham Kaplan and Robert A. Dahl, both men believe the study of politics is largely to do with the use of influence by those who find themselves in influential positions. In their book “Power and Society: an introduction to the social sciences” both Thomas Dye and Brigid Harrison define politics as “the study of power”. One of the Oxford dictionary’s definitions of power is “the capacity or ability to direct or influence the behaviour of others or the course of events”, thus proving there is most certainly a very close link between politics and influence. The study of politics is certainly the study of influence and the influential, as it looks at how exactly men like Barack Obama and David Cameron use their power to influence millions of individuals on a global, civic and personal level. A powerful
But even he does not specify the nature and form of the process applied to interpretation and analysis from the stand point of aesthetic structure and form of such a type of novel. The process may even be human in a broad way without being political. That is emphasizing the socio-human repercussions of the political. Even the test of 'the political' lies in its socio-human ends than its hypothetical formulations. All political programmers create their reactions in the lives of the people, who eventually fashion the course of future politics in their human way.
1986). He made many valid points on his breakdown of politics, but his specifics on politics as an art, politics as law, and moral education in politics stick with us and has carried on throughout the years as the U.S government has adapted many of his teachings and theories. Aristotle, although would go back of forth at times, believed that politics was considered a science or tech. However, during the process of his writing he was unable to dissociate himself from Plato's understanding and many times has to recourse to Plato's understanding of politics as an art(Coby. 1986).