There is also deforestation. The clearing of land for agriculture that often leads to water pollution, when soil is stripped of its vegetation it becomes prone to soil erosion, which leads to increase in murkiness of water which causes the block of the gills of fish. Plants at the bottom cannot then photosynthesize as the sun’s rays do not reach them. Increase the disease as bacteria uses soil particles as a method of transportation to the water. Then there is destruction of wetlands.
In surface water system, major point sources of pollution are municipal sewage treatment plant, industrial facilities and combined sewer overflows. In recent years, agriculture has been identified as the one of the most pervasive contribution to the non-point source of pollution of surface water and groundwater (Battle and Lipeles, 1993). Water pollution is highly costly in the effect it has on the health of human, other organisms and ecosystem and in the economic damage it inflicts on industries including agriculture. Aside from it’s effects on human health, water pollution causes widespread damage to aquatic ecosystem such as rivers, lakes, wastelands and costal marine areas. A survey by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that more that 17,000(or 10%) of the nation’s streams, rivers and bays are significantly polluted (Michael and Schoch,
Some of the things people do cause harm to the health. We cause pollution when we make our water, land, and air dirty. In this topic, you will learn what pollution is, what are different types of pollution, and how does it affect health. Pollution is anything that makes the earth dirty and unhealthy. Water, air,and land are all affected by pollution.There are different types of pollution categorized based on the part of the environment which they affect or result which the particular pollution causes.
One source of contamination is Agricultural runoff to surface waters, and this is said to be the major source for the dissolution of nitrate and phosphate compounds (Correll et al., 1999; Chadwick and Chen, 2002; Ensign et al., 2006). It represents the greatest contamination risk to surface water systems (Jamieson et al., 2002). Diminishing water quality as a result of contamination has affected living resources through habitat degradation, thus reducing estuarine productivity and eliminating feeding and nursery habitats. 1.1 Statement of Problem The river Volta Basin receives runoff water from the surroundings;- for settlers along the river are engaged in Agricultural activities which involve the use of agrochemicals and pesticides which could cause the deposition of trace metals in the sediment which contaminate the river, and this could be harmful to aquatic life. In light of this there is the need to regulate human activities that could have adverse effects on aquatic life.
Agricultural pollution is considered the major pollution of water (Mihov). Oil pollution results from pouring things like used car oil and paint into drains. Other sources of pollution include phosphorus from household wastewater and sewage that also degrade the presence of oxygen in rivers, disposal of solid waste into rivers, improper waste disposal, animals washing and wallowing in the river, and dumping human remains that may welcome infectious diseases (Hudda, S.) Human activities such as agriculture produce the main source of nutrient pollutants like fertilizer and sewage systems are considered as one of the main pollutants of freshwater bodies. (Mihov, S. WWF) Toxic substances such as heavy metals greatly affect the chemical properties of water (Mihov). Contamination from industrial sources is also a common source of
1.3.2. Industry: Is the main source of water pollution in the world. The effluents from industries are harmful for both human and aquatic life. Large amount of waste is released from industries such as paper and pulp industry, food processing industries, leather industries, pharmaceutical industries etc. The main contaminants are: • Lead: is a metallic substance that can cause health and environment problem and it is non-biodegradable.
These waste enter waterways as runoff from agricultural lands. If a water body receives fertilizers or manure, the water becomes rich in nutrients leading to eutrophication and oxygen depletion. Seepage of excessive nitrates into groundwater followed by its consumption by children produces a serious diseases known as methaemoglobinaemia, nitrate poisoning has been reported in various areas of Rajasthan. Pesticides, especial DOT used in the control of mosquitos and agricultural pests, have become the most serious pollutants of water. Being long- lasting under natural conditions, the pesticide goes on increasing in soil and water with successive applications.
The cause of this was a nasty toxin called microcystin. Microcystin appears because of human pollution and fertilizers that flow into rivers and lakes which then lead to the ocean. Cancer-causing chemicals called PCBs and pesticides like DDT are in marine mammals ' fatty tissues and they cause serious harm. 2. Many health departments encourage people not to swim 72 hours after it rains because the coastal waters are polluted from urban runoff, leaking sewage from sewage pipes and overflowing sewer manholes.
Other health associated problems includes poor blood circulation, skin lesions, vomiting and damage to the nervous system. This diseases or health problems are leading cause of death for humans across the globe. Acid rain is also one of the effects of the water pollution. It contains sulfate particles which are harmful fish or plant life in lakes and rivers. Higher acidity usually hinders some fish and water plants from reproducing, growing and surviving.
Water pollution might occur when pollutants enter the water bodies and affect the aquatic organisms thus decreases the quality of water. When toxic substance enter the water bodies, it affecting the flora and also fauna in the aquatic environment. Water is the basic unit of life and the water cycle implies the pollution control. In Malaysia, water pollution is one of the major problem that comes from domestic and also industrial sewage including livestock farms, logging activity, road construction and also mining (WWF Malaysia, 2018). The reduction in river water quality is clear indicator of aquatic pollution.