In case the expanded customer expenditure causes further development, there will be an increase in the import sector. If imports climb quicker than fares, a certain deficit may be noticed. On the other hand, development could be fare headed e.g. Japan 's development in the 1960s and 70s and China as of
On the other side, low-income earners are not expected to purchase the company products in bulk or frequently. Nevertheless, consumer income is widely affected by the rate of inflation which determines the amount of money they receive as salaries and wages as well as the prices of the company’s product. Inflation is widely defined as the continued increase in prices of products and consumers.
Progressive Tax: According to Encyclopedia Britannica, a progressive tax is a tax levied at a rate that increases as the quantity subject to taxation increases. This form of tax is imposed in an economy in an attempt to reduce the tax incidence of people with a lower ability to pay as the tax shifts the incident to the people with a higher ability to pay. The table below shows an example of a system of progressive tax in the UK. From the above diagram we come to know that the people in or under the income
This curve became widely used by policymakers to control unemployment and inflation by manipulating the opposite variable. Acknowledging the inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment shown in the Phillips Curve, Phelps agreed that inflation depends on unemployment and vice-versa, but he challenged the curve's theoretical foundation and argued that the government should not use the curve as a basis for policy. He noted that when the government attempts to lower unemployment below its natural rate through expansionary monetary or fiscal policy, demand increases and firms respond by raising prices faster than anticipated by workers. With higher prices, firms receive a higher revenue and are able to hire more workers. When workers see that their wages have risen, they supply more labor, leading to a lower unemployment rate.
As before, as the population increases with immigration, the labor supply would also increase, but the increased population would also lead to increased consumer spending and demand (i.e. money flowing into the US economy). When this new shift is taken into consideration, the labor demand would need to also increase to accommodate the new consumer demand. Thus, the change to wage rates would be subject how much labor supply and labor demand shift; a larger shift in supply over demand leading to decreased wage rates and vice-versa. Consequently, the resulting outcomes from immigration could be positive, negative, or neutral towards economic factors.
As a result of the time value of the money, NPV considers the compounding of the discount rate over the span of the project. The NPV of a project mirrors how much cash inflow or outflow and it measures up to or surpasses the amount of project capital required to reserve it. An organization utilize NPV as a method for contrasting their relative profitability with assurance that exclusive the most lucrative endeavors are sought while evaluating numerous projects. A higher NPV shows that the project is more fruitful. The forecasted cash outflow and inflow for every period must be recognized and additionally the expected discount rate in order to compute NPV.
Cost-push inflation happens when we face higher prices due to the increase in cost of production and higher costs of raw materials. It is determined by supply side factors. Cost-push inflation can be caused by higher price of commodities, imported inflation, higher wages, higher taxes and higher food prices (Economics Help, 2011). Demand-pull inflation happens when there is an increase in the price of goods and services when demand increases too much that it outpaces supply (US Economy, 2015). Sometimes people refer it as “too much money chasing too few goods”.
The rational expectations theory is often used to explain expected rates of inflation. For example, if inflation rates within an economy were higher than expected in the past, people take that into account along with other indicators to assume that inflation may further increase in the future. The rational expectations theory also explains how producers and suppliers use past events to predict future business operations. If a company believes that the price for its product will be higher in the future, for example, it will stop or slow production until the price rises. Since the company weakens supply while demand stays the same, the price will increase.
Basu (1972) published his study concerning the relation of the price to earnings ratio with the market efficiency, concluding to the better performance of lower price to earnings ratio securities. Banz(1981) observed that small size firms have higher returns. Even more researches have been conducted some as further studies and some as a different point of view, showing that until nowadays numerous anomalies have been recorded. Such categories are Calendar effects which include anomalies based on particular time and on the other hand there are those anomalies that are based on particular events, relying on the sensibility such as book to market ratio, size effect and price to earnings
IFRS permits to use FIFO and weighted average method but LIFO is prohibited IFRS applies the lower of cost or net realizable value. Historical inventory “cost” is used in applying the lower of cost or net realizable value over the entire period that the inventory is held. Write-downs are reversed as selling prices rise. Over the entire period of an enterprise, the amount of expense and profit are the same in the income statement on US GAAP and IFRS. However, the inventory and cost of goods sold balances can vary dramatically in any given period.