Invertebrate Animals: Cephalopoda

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Introduction: Invertebrate animals which belong to mollusks which means “head foot” and characterized by large head and modified feet. This group includes octopuses, squid, cuttlefish and nautiluses. Members of cephalopods are characterized by their ability to quick change their color as well as changing the texture and shape of their bodies as a means of camouflage.
Today there are about 800 living marine species of cephalopods which are found in all of the world’s oceans, from the tropics to the near freezing water at the poles.
Description: The name cephalopods which means head-armed were given this name because these animals have several arms around their protruding mouth. The number of arms number of arms in squids and cuttlefish
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Especially for evasion or retreat, cephalopods use a particular type of locomotion through jet propulsion done through filling animal’s mantle cavity with water before pressing the water out of the cavity's opening with high speed. In general, cephalopods are the most active of the molluscs in their swimming speed.
Self-defense: Cephalopods possess effective mechanisms which they might use for self-defense. For example, the ink similar substance produced from a gland in squids is used to confuse the attacker and even hampers its olfactory organs, so it cannot smell the squid. Some octopuses also use ink to confuse a prey (especially big ones, like lobsters) before attacking it from behind.
Changing color/shape: Many cephalopods are able to change their color and shape. Through controlling single pigment cells, cephalopods are capable of making different patterns and colors. For example, ready-to mate squids express their readiness through expressing certain colors. The change of color and shape are also used to camouflage animals when hiding from enemies or ambushing prey.
Utilization: Squids are mainly used as human food especially in sea side countries. Additionally, squids are used as bait in

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