The rationale behind the study was that several studies have so far indicated a correlation between learning strategies andpersonality, and also they have shown that certain personality types have differentlevels of ambiguitytolerance. The objective of the study was to examine the effects oflexical ambiguity in CALL on the beginning 2ndlanguage learners. It is important to point out that lexical ambiguity was operationally defined as whether or not theCALL context provides first-language sentence-level translations for different meanings.In addition, the study sought to determine if learners’ personality types (measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, MBTI) influence the second language vocabulary retentionindependently of the translationissue and in an ambiguous CALL
They vary the amount of rehearsal during learning by intentional learning condition (INT) and intentional learning condition with a subsidiary task (INT-T) under full and reduced rehearsal conditions. Also, researcher used incidental learning condition to examine recall without rehearsal. For INT-T, serial position effect was shown, despite the recall was less than INT overall. Therefore, the research finding provided the necessity of a rehearsal buffer mechanism in order to explain recency effect. After researching, elements from the studies mentioned above were used.
Teachers should incorporate a combination of direct instruction and the constructivist approach when teaching reading. This essay will discuss six elements of teaching students to read including oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency, and ways in which teachers can deliver instruction using a balanced approach. A balanced approach to teaching reading involves explicit phonics instruction as well as world view. Traditionally students were introduced to reading with an emphasis on phonics. McBride-Chang (2004) recognised that this bottom-up approach resulted in students who are more likely to lose interest in reading due to the limited vocabulary and repetitiveness of texts they read (p.120).
Specific assumptions or principles that have direct relevance to instructional design include the following: • The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing. • Learning can occur without a change in behavior or learning may not necessarily be shown in the performance of the learner. • Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value. • Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional
In spite of the fact that Lesson Study joins a significant number of the components that are coveted for expert advancement, there are a couple challenges related with interpreting Japanese formed Lesson Study into the United States proficient improvement framework (Campbell, 2003; Chokshi and Fernandez, 2005; Fernandez, 2002; Hiebert and Stigler, 2000; Perry and Lewis, 2003). One regularly refered to issue to rehearsing Lesson Study is finding the ideal opportunity for educators to get together to arrange and see in each other's classrooms (Fernandez, 2002; Granger, 2003; Lewis et al., 2006, December). In the United States numerous educators feel a developing weight to cover the gauges instead of profoundly investigate ideas with understudies
On the other hand, where context support is not accessible, as an account of displaced reference, the language user needs to ensure that all the vital presuppositions are coded inside of the message. This extra functional interest of overseeing displaced reference is one reason that the language user needs to create or exploit a noteworthy scope of syntactic assets. Therefore, Immediacy has likewise been documented to influence L2 performance in predictable ways. To be particular, it is affirmed that performing the task in the there and then condition improves L2 learners' complexity
HYPOTHESIS H1. A positive relationship between perceived enjoyment and intention to use e-learning is significantly exists. METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN This research study is conducted to determine the relationship between perceived enjoyment and intention to use e-learning. The study possessed minimal interference due to the fact that the researcher is only distributing and administering the questionnaires to the students. POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE 2.1
Thus, as an initial stage, this investigation explores four learning attributes (initiative, control, self-efficacy and motivation) that influence the self-directed learning approach by responding to 25-items of the questionnaire which called “ Self-Directed Learning (SDL) Questionnaire ”. The results are expected to be the key parts to augur transformation of the education system in polytechnics by understanding the students’ problem regarding SDL, identifying rooms for improvements and implement coherent measures to help students with
Sixty students were selected as intermediate level learners. Intact group method was used in selecting the participants. In other words, the students were non-randomly selected and then randomly assigned to a control group and an experimental group. Initially, the researcher provided the participants with some introductory information about the objectives of the course, the importance of learning idioms, the difficulties of learning and memorizing idioms through verbal definitions, and finally different methods of treating idioms along with the other tools. The participants were administered a proficiency test before being exposed to the treatments.
If the strategies used to correct errors do not meet students’ preferences, subsequent negative attitudes may emerge. This is why teachers should consider students’ preferences for being corrected (Hyland, 2003). The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between demotivated and motivated EFL learners’ preferences toward teachers’ oral error correction, including the necessity, frequency, timing, type, method, and delivering agent of error correction. To this end, 141 Iranian EFL learners at the departments of foreign language in Zabol and Sistan and Baluchestan universities participated in this study. The learners’ preferences for error correction questionnaire (Fukuda 2004), the demotivation questionnaire (Sakai & Kikuchi 2009),