Ionic Bonding Research Paper

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Objective #1
Compare the differences between ionic and covalent bonding and how molecules are formed by either ionic or covalent bonds.
IONIC BONDING: Ionic Bonding is the complete transferring of valence electrons between two atoms. This type of chemical bonding results in two oppositely charged ions, a cation and an anion In ionic bonding the electrostatic attraction between the charged ions holds the compound together.
Example: Bonding of Sodium and chlorine. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Fig.1 to show the electronic configuration of sodium along with its atomic mass and atomic number

The above diagram shows the atom, sodium. It displays that Na has one valence electron. In order to become stable and have a noble gas structure, sodium
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Proteins are amphoteric in nature.

Protein Structure
Protein has four different structures: Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary

Functions of Proteins in the human body [11]: Proteins are used for repair and maintenance of body tissues. Also for growth of hair and nails. Proteins provide a major source of energy Proteins are involved in the manufacture of some hormones. Proteins are a major element in the transportation of certain molecules. Proteins form antibodies which aid in the prevention of infections, illnesses and diseases. Proteins are a source of enzymes which are biological catalysts in the human body. Proteins also act as storage molecules. Eg. Ferritin.

Nucleic Acids [4] Nucleic acids are known as genetic materials. They are macromolecules meaning that they are polymers of nucleotides (phosphate group, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base). Living matter is composed of nucleic acids in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). [4] Nucleic acids contain two types of nitrogenous bases: purines and
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The more hydrogen ions present, it is said that the solution is more acidic and the smaller amount of hydrogen ions present, the solution is said to be basic or alkaline. pH is measured on a scale from 0-14, where 7 is the neutral value. The higher the pH value is the more basic and the lower the pH value, the more acidic.
Significance of pH in the body [8]: pH maintenance is important in the body in order to support optimum health. The most critical pH is that of the blood and in order to maintain blood pH, homeostatic control takes place. In homeostasis the organs and fluids will fluctuate to keep the pH of the blood firmly between 7.35 -7.45. This is a very narrow pH range in the blood.
If the pH becomes too acidic in the blood [8]: The bones will start to leach calcium and there would be reduced absorption levels of supplementary substances as well as mineral ions. The levels of insulin in the body will upsurge and instead of fat being broken down or metabolized, they will be stored. There will be occurrences of the imbalance of electrolytes in the body It can also lead to immune deficiencies resulting from slower digestive functions and elimination

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