Ionic Bond Essay

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Unit 3: Formation of ionic and metallic bonds Key unit competence: Describe how properties of ionic compounds and metals are related to the nature of their bonding
3.1. Introduction

 Activity 3.1
Look at the pictures above and answer the following questions. Record your answers and discuss them in your groups.
1) Observe carefully pictures A, B and C and suggest the similarity between them.
2) What can you say about the chloride and sodium ions in the pictures above?
3) What holds the chloride and sodium ions together?
People like to bond with each other, we cannot live in isolation. People can have strong connection .similarly some atoms can also have strong bonds between them. some atoms have weak connections, just like two people
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Ionic bonding
In an ionic bond, electrons are transferred from one atom to another so that they form oppositely charged ions. The strong force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions is what holds them together. Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions in an ionic crystal lattice.
3.3.1. Formation of ionic bond
 Activity 3.3
1) Draw diagrams to illustrate the formation of ionic compounds in sodium chloride, magnesium oxide, magnesium chloride, sodium peroxide, and sodium sulphide.
The transfer of electrons from one atom to another is called ionic bonding. This type of bonding occurs between metals and non-metals. The compounds formed are called ionic compounds. As stated previously, metals try to lose their outer electrons while non metals look to gain electrons to obtain a full outer shell. When metals lose their outer electrons they form positively charged ions called cations. When non-metals gain electrons they form negatively charged ions called anions. An example is shown below:

The arrow between sodium and fluorine represents the transfer of an electron from a sodium atom to a fluorine atom to form opposite ions. These 2 ions are strongly attracted to each other because of their opposite charge. A bond is now formed and the resulting compound is called Sodium
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(a) Formation of calcium chloride

(b) Formation of magnesium oxide (c ) formation of bonds in sodium fluoride

 Checking Up: 2
1. For each of the following ionic bonds: Sodium + Chlorine, Magnesium + Iodine, Sodium + Oxygen, Calcium + Chlorine and Aluminium + Chlorine
a) Write the symbols for each element.
b) Draw a Lewis Dot structure for the valence shell of each element.
c) Draw an arrow (or more if needed) to show the transfer of electrons to the new element.
d) Write the resulting chemical formula.
e) Write the electron configurations for each ion that is formed. Ex. H1+ = 1s2

2. Solid sodium chloride and solid magnesium oxide are both held together by ionic (electrovalent) bonds.
a) Using s, p and d notation write down the symbol for and the electronic configuration of (i) a sodium ion; (ii) a chloride ion; (iii) a magnesium ion; (iv) an oxide ion.
b) Explain what holds sodium and chloride ions together in the solid crystal
c) Sodium chloride melts at 1074 K; magnesium oxide melts at 3125 K. Both have identical structures. Why is there such a difference in their melting
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