This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
It was found that the compound was solid and white in color. The unknown compound was then tested solubility in water and the compound was soluble in the water. The flame test was performed for four know compound calcium chorine, sodium chlorine and ammonium chorine and the unknown compound. When unknown compound was put on the fire different color are produce. When we smell the unknown compound it indicated the presence of chorine.
The most common are precipitation and complexation. In a precipitation reaction, an ion in solution reacts with an added reagent to form a solid. Whether a solid will form from a given reaction can be predicted by the solubility product constant (Ksp) of the solid under the given conditions. Solubility product constants are the equilibrium constants for the dissolution of an "insoluble" ionic solid in water. A low Ksp implies that the compound does not dissolve to an appreciable degree in water.
A titration is the precise addition of a solution from a buret into an accurately measured volume of a sample solution. A titrant is the solution in the buret that is used for the titration, and the volume of the solution is known. The titrants used in this lab were 0.1M hydrochloric acid and 0.1M sodium hydroxide (the reactions can be seen in figure 4). A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a compound that donates a proton. A Bronsted-Lowry base is a compound that accepts a proton.
When an aromatic compound such as phenol undergoes nitration, it does so through an Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS). Undergoing this reaction requires two steps. The first step is the addition of the electrophile, which in this lab was the Nitronium ion formed by the dilute nitric acid solution. This is the rate determining step for this reaction, as during this step aromaticity is lost and the arenium ion is formed. The position of the electrophile to be added is determined by how well the arenium ion can be stabilized once the initial addition occurs.
The most ideal in preparation of sodium alginate is by adding the powder to agitated water rather than vice verso to avoid formation of clumps. Alginic acid can be in two conditions which are water soluble or insoluble. That is relying upon the type of the related salt. The salts of sodium, other alkali metals and ammonia are soluble, though the salts of polyvalent cations such as calcium are water insoluble except for magnesium. The polymer of alginate itself is anionic which is negatively charged.
Ion Exchange Chromatography is a technique for ionic separation based on exchange with resins in stationary phase and the eluents in mobile phase. These stages are based on the exchanges in an anion column to attract anions or in a cation column to attract cations. cations. A column measures the conductivity of a particular ion based on its affinity/attraction to it. The speed of movement of ions through the ion chromatograph columns depends not only on the diameter of the column but basically on the affinity of the ion to the specific resin or elute selected, the size of the interacting molecules and also the resultant distance between them based on the degree of attraction and repulsion.
Non-polar: when the two atoms have identical or similar electro negativities so the charges are distributed equally. A covalent compound: it is a molecule formed by covalent bonds in which atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons. Properties of Covalent compounds: • Hard • Good insulators • Transparent • Poor conductors of heat and electricity (specially in water) • Tend to be gases, liquids or soft
The computationally predicted various possible conformers are shown in Fig.1. The optimized molecular structure with the numbering of atoms of the title compound is shown in Fig.2. The most optimized structural parameters were also calculated by HF/ B3LYP have depicted in Table 1. Quantum chemical calculation was used for NFN to carry out the optimized geometry with the Gaussian 03W program  using the B3LYP and HF functional [11, 12] supplemented with standard 3-21G* basis set. Density Functional Theory (DFT) can be used to calculate an accurate electronic structure, HOMO and LUMO energies, Mulliken charge of atoms, energetic orbital levels, global hardness, chemical potential and electrophilicity of systems, and finally chemical, physical properties of fullerene and fullerene derivatives.
Properties of Ionic and Covalent Substances Lab Report Introduction The purpose of this lab was to determine which of the following substances: wax, sugar, and salt, are an ionic compound and which are a covalent compound. In order to accurately digest the experiments results, research of definitions of each relating led to the following information: ionic compounds are positive and negatively charged ions that experience attraction to each other and pull together in a cluster of ionic bonds; they are the strongest compound, are separated in high temperatures, and can be separated by polar water molecules. A covalent compound forms when two or more nonmetal atoms share valence electrons; covalent compounds are also