III. Antidepressants a) Iproniazid i) The first modern drug, called Iproniazid, was developed as an antitubercular drug in the early 1950s. The drug decreased the number of tubercule bacilli in the septum and it also stimulated patients’ appetite, gave them energy, and restored them to general health. ii) Iproniazid suppressed the replication of bacteria, but the patients’ extra energy boost did not entirely derive from the medication. iii) Doctor Nathan Kline, a psychiatrist who invested the drug’s effects on the mind, hoped that an increase to a patient’s vital energy would reverse depression. (1) The large amount of energy would be easily available to the ego so that there would be more than enough energy available to the patient; resulting …show more content…
e) Kramer alluded to the tendency to listen to the drugs, in order to discover facts about the human body. i) The popular phenomena at the time, was medication. Scientist relied on medication response to infer the cause of a disease. (1) The use of drugs were used as probes to understand the mental disorders, by determining the effectiveness of the medication. f) The biogenic theory of depression in terms of our theoretical understandings of mental disorders was formed. i) The theory stated that the mood is determined in the brain by biogenic amines – complex chemicals who’s structure resembles that of ammonia. ii) Before antidepressants, amines were involved in the regulation of a variety of functions; from heart rate and stomach motility, to alertness and sleep. (1) Iproniazid and Imipramine concluded that amines regulated mood but it could not be proved. (a) The amine hypothesis could not support the effects of the drugs. The drugs did not have an immediate effect on the patient’s neurotransmitters, perplexing the doctors of the time lag. If the amine hypothesis was true, the drugs should work instantaneously. g) Prozac (Fluoxetine
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
1. Mood disorders affect how you feel. Typically, everyone experiences changes in mood, but a person with diagnosed mood disorder could have: a. Problems with personal life b. Problems with physical health c. Problems at work d. All of the above 2. Which of the following is true about the biology of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)? a. The tertiary amines (e.g. imipramine) is typically metabolized by demethylation to the secondary active metabolites (e.g. desipramine) and thus inhibits the reuptake of noradrenaline b. The tertiary amines (e.g. imipramine) is typically metabolized by methylation to the secondary active metabolites (e.g. desipramine) and thus inhibits the reuptake of serotonin
Jon Ronson explores in his book, The Psychopath Test, the true “scam” behind The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) and American pharmaceuticals industries. He begins with an anxious theme and expands by showing that as one is anxious he or she learns more about something and can maybe find a deeper meaning. This example is what Ronson did when he accepted Talmi’s offer to see and help her with the book. As Ronson moves through the book he develops his idea at a rapid pace.
One of the objectives of the study is to compare other treatment studies and clinical experience to establish if antidepressants medication decrease depressive episodes. The study shows an update list of approved medications for Bipolar disorder. The approach for antidepressants is controversial, the study reveals the antidepressants benefits in lessening depressive symptoms, but for short-term treatment only. This article, published by Medscape, provide a comprehensive review and clinical information about the topic that help health professionals to maintain an up-to-date
As with other drugs with sedative effects, in the coming decades it became a substance of abuse up to the 1980’s within dance and club culture around the world, and was officially classified as a Schedule I in early 2000. Since its restriction, clinical studies have been pioneered to determine psychiatric utility for mood disorders. Studies have shown that pure ketamine holds properties that control glutamate function in the brain. Ketamine responds to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor of the brain which controls functions of glutamate in the brain as an antagonist. (“History of Ketamine”,
25). This is primarily done through manipulation of the independent variable (the amount of drug) and the observed effect on the dependent variable (change in an individual’s behavior). Experimental research conducted within behavioral pharmacology includes experimental control, within subject and between subject designs. Non experimental research design “looks for a relationship between two measured events” (p. 29) but does not infer causation. Stimulants or uppers are drugs that increase arousal while those that decrease arousal are termed depressants or downers.
The Llama, The Turkey and The Moose: A Bio-Organic Chemistry Fable As a mother of three little girls with beautiful dark, curly hair, I spend a lot of time washing, detangling and styling their curls. There are often tears of pain while I comb out stubborn tangles and my little girls tell me that they wish they had straight “yellow” hair like their Barbie or the Disney princesses. I am so sad that they don’t appreciate the beauty of their natural ethnicity, so I made up a fable in the style of Aesop that I tell them to keep them entertained while I style their hair. My three pretty girls Once upon a time, there was a llama, a turkey and a moose.
Dr. Sacks discusses two controversial diagnoses in this chapter. Tourette’s syndrome and encephalitis lethargica were both forgotten to time because their characteristics were mystical, for this reason many doctors rejected them. Dr. Sacks gives these diagnoses the attention and thought needed to help aide his patient that suffer these symptoms rather than ignoring its existence. Doctors typically medicate patients to help alleviate symptoms. Dr. Sacks discussed how L-Dopa is administered to post-encephalitic patients to replace their lack of dopamine.
One’s environment can also have severe effects on one’s thought processes and mood. If one is in an abusive relationship, or having financial troubles it is stated in the the debate provided in the course module, that it is vital to figure out if one is is depressed or merely unhappy. Giving antidepressants to a patient who is not particularly in need of them can have the opposite effects than what is trying to be achieved. Heritage plays another big role. Looking back on one’s lineage to observe if there is a pattern of depression can sometimes give one a headstart in their treatment plan.
According to neuroimaging studies, BA targets the reward system, a crucial part of the brain that is believe to lead to anhedonia and depression. Individuals who recovered from depression via BA treatments showed higher activation in the Striatum during anticipation for reward which is opposite of what is observed in patients with anhedonia (Treadway, Zald, 2010; Dicter et al, 2009). The effects of BA were also proven to be comparable and superior to other forms of treatments such as cognitive therapy and medication for mild to moderate depression (Dimidjian et al. 2006; Coffman et al, 2007). The effects of BA also appear to sustain amongst successful individuals between 6 to 24 months post treatment (Sturmey, 2009; Dobson et al, 2008).
We are still not entirely sure how psychoactive drugs work on the brain. As Angell notes, the very first drugs used to treat psychosis were in fact discovered completely by accident. Early anti-psychotics were originally designed to treat infections but were soon discovered to also alter patients' mental states. Further research revealed that these drugs worked on neurotransmitters in the brain, a discovery that represented an important leap in the field of psychiatry.
Introduction Lithium has been used as a form of treatment since the middle of the 19th century, although its purpose then was not the same as what is currently used for. Like many famous discoveries, the therapeutic effects of Lithium were discovered by accident but it has had a major impact on the development and understanding of psychopharmacology. As American psychiatrist Nathan Kline said, (Johnson, 1984) “If we were to eliminate from science all great discoveries that had come about as a result of mistaken hypothesis or fluky experimental data, we would be lacking half of what we know (or think we know).” Now a leading drug in the treatment of Bipolar disorder, Lithium is a highly influential drug in the treatment of psychiatric disorders,
A recent drug is about to be released called “Psychamine”. Many think that it doesn’t affect the body or put it in an unnatural state, but I believe that it’s still scary. It is different from other depression drugs, meaning it doesn 't change your state of mind, but it gets rid of all sad feelings below the line of contentment. If something sad were to happen, you would not feel sad about it until 12 hours after you ingested the pill. But before I discuss what I intend to do, I’d
Out of all three sources, this one by far goes into the greatest depth and detail in the scientific reasoning for exercise’s effect on depression. The article begins by explaining that the levels of BDNF (Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor), which has antidepressant effects, are increased when one participates in regular exercise which is why many depressed individuals are prescribed to become active. To summarize, when the authors’ examined the effects of exercise and antidepressants, they found that BDNF levels respond similarly to exercise as they do to the antidepressant tranylcypromine. When utilized separately, both exercise and tranylcypromine take effect in about two weeks but when administered simultaneously, they can positively affect the brain in just two days. The authors also explain that increased stress levels may be linked to depression and another test they ran showed that exercise and antidepressants together have a significant positive impact on BDNF levels in the hippocampus, improving stress response.