In juxtaposition, the internal factors that may predispose an individual to benzodiazepine addiction involves psychological determinants, such as depressive and anxiety disorders, personality traits, such as neuroticism and borderline personality disorders, and “negative mood combined with a feeling of personal unworthiness” and inadequacy (Konopka et al., 2013, p. 230). Therefore, Konopka and colleagues (2013) developed a research design that analyzed the internal and external factors related to benzodiazepine addiction. These researchers investigated four factors related to benzodiazepine addiction: treatment circumstances (duration, dosage, and reason for receiving the benzodiazepine), psychological characteristics (anxiety levels and personality traits), coping mechanisms, and critical life events (Konopka et al.,
According to History.com, from 1953-73, the government tested the mind control effects Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on both consenting and unconsenting participants. The hallucogines were intended to make the test subjects more docile and easier to command; this was also the premeditated function of Soma in the novel. Soma sent users into a euphoric state, making them content with the oppressive circumstances of World State. Thoughts of revolts and societal change eluded substance soaked minds, giving the government a strong sense of security and control. Even though Huxley could not predict the future, themes of Brave New World became clearly prevalent in our society after his popular work came to light.
Although psychedelics helps individuals cope with disorders, it also helps people overcome alcoholism. In the article, “Why Doctors Can’t Give You LSD (But Maybe They Should)” by Ferro, the author states “In 1953, a pair of Canadian researchers tried to use high doses of LSD to scare alcoholics into sobriety, but discovered it instead produced a kind of
Slowly, expanding confinements were set on restorative and psychiatric examination led with LSD and other hallucinogenic substances. However the senator Robet Kennedy was reticent about this interdiction of lsd , and talked about how much it could be good to cure disease in the subccomitee on executive reorganization (1966) “Perhaps to some extent we have lost sight of the fact that lsd can be very , very , very in our society if used properly .” the
In addition to which the studies also found that Linalool affects the aggressive behavior in a person. It reduces the aggressive behavior and lessens the stress response too, but at the same time improves sleep. The Lavender used here has Linalool, which was found in mice in high concentration after inhaling this product (as per studies conducted). It was also found that it affected the central nervous system. There is not a clear understanding of the pharmacological mechanism of Linalool.
Carter formed her hypothesis that manipulating ApoE in the brain can lead to Aβ clearance and may slow the progression of AD and possibly cure the disease. With the knowledge that nuclear receptors liver X receptor (LXR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) regulate ApoE expression, Dr. Carter investigated Bexarotene, an RXR agonist. Her research showed that administering Bexarotene to AD mice improved previously impaired memory, cognitive functions, and social behaviors. By choosing to investigate a drug already approved by the FDA for treatment of lymphoma, Dr. Carter proved her efficiency in the field; approval for a new drug would have been much more difficult to obtain when she moved to clinical
Being a natural substance, individuals who may have been suffering from chronic pain and have been taking opioids may have developed a form of dependence to the drug. To be on the safe side, these individuals have chosen to use kratom to relieve them from their pain. Kratom as Treatment for Opiate Addiction Those who used kratom may either be opiate dependents or those individuals who are under opiate medication but somehow has developed a dependence on the drug. Believing that kratom use poses lesser health risks than using other medications to treat addiction, kratom has become the drug of choice for some individuals. However, since kratom may not be among the commonly prescribed alternatives by doctors to treat opiate addiction, some individuals may have decided in doing self-medication in the hope that they can be dealing with a much safer substance and that they can completely turn away from taking opioids.
The ingredients used in Leyzene work to give out a variety of compounds and hormones into the body, making it to naturally perform better. With the increase in testosterone, Leyzene makes, men see themselves more driven, with a quick increase in endurance and performance. The nitric oxide reaction with Leyzene leads increased strength in the male body, so men can finally perform to their expectations. Another huge benefit of the pill, Leyzene, is that it is able to provide the huge range of benefits to men with natural ingredients. So often, male enhancement pills are formulated with fillers and dangerous synthetic ingredients that can lead to more harm than good in men’ bodies.
Modafinil is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy or Obstructive sleep apnea hyperpnoea syndrome (OSAHS). Narcolepsy is a chronic disease of the brain and spinal cord characterized by a constant, uncontrollable desire to sleep. Like amphetamines, modafinil promotes wakefulness by stimulating the cerebellum of the brain. Recent studies have shown that modafinil can also be useful for treating the symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder and various other
The most important medical treatment for Parkinson’s disease is Carbidopa-Levodopa, which is a combination of two different drugs; Carbidopa is added to reduce nausea, which Levodopa often causes when taken by itself. The drug Levodopa is absorbed by blood from the small intestines and travels to the brain, where it converts into dopamine and stays in the neurons until needed (“Carbidopa-Levodopa”). Recommended exercises for victims with Parkinson’s include stretching, yoga, Pilates, and strengthening exercises (“Exercise”). Often used as a last resort, surgical treatments are available those whose Parkinson’s related symptoms cannot be cured through medicine. One of the these treatments is called Deep Brain Stimulation, a neurosurgical procedure used to treat symptoms such as tremor, stiffness, and difficulties walking.
One of the objectives of the study is to compare other treatment studies and clinical experience to establish if antidepressants medication decrease depressive episodes. The study shows an update list of approved medications for Bipolar disorder. The approach for antidepressants is controversial, the study reveals the antidepressants benefits in lessening depressive symptoms, but for short-term treatment only. This article, published by Medscape, provide a comprehensive review and clinical information about the topic that help health professionals to maintain an up-to-date
Merchants who sell them online position the product as a more affordable Viagra alternative, but herbal Viagra is actually not the same with the original drug. The FDA has previously warned that herbal Viagra has undeclared ingredients such as sildenafil that interact with prescription cardiac drugs and lower blood pressure to dangerous levels. The agency instructed consumers to stop using Reload immediately and throw away the product. While Reload’s package advises users to consult with a doctor if they have any cardiovascular diseases before using the drug, it does not mention sildenafil. Instead, the substances “Gingko Biloba” and “Panax Ginseng” are listed on the package.
William McKim in chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and 14 looks at some basic pharmacology, research design and the behavioral analysis of drug effects, tolerance withdrawal, sensitization and conditioning of drug effects, dependence addiction and the self administration of drugs as well as antidepressants and mood stabilizers. A drug in its most basic form is defined as “a substance that alters the physiology of the body” (p. 1) and is comprised of a chemical name, a generic name and trade name. The chemical name is used by chemists to identify what the molecules of a drug looks like while the generic name is a shorter version of the chemical name. The trade name on the other hand, is the property of the company that sells the drug. The effect of a drug
The specified medication involved in treating the disorder involves the application of ADHD stimulants meaning that if the drug is taken as prescribed by the medical doctor, the behavior and attention insignificance will be reduced remarkably. ADHD drugs are commonly abused by people through injection, insufflation, even rectal administration of the pills. Different research conducted has illustrated the illegal use of ADHD medication for their stimulating properties. Research indicates that students using the drug as a stimulant shows a positive increase in performance and cognitive skills (Vester, Brady and Galanter 78). Additionally, college students abusing the drug through using it as a stimulant state believe that the drug revives the body and the brain hence increase the ability to focus academically.
The inventor of LSD, Dr. Albert Hofmann, was known to microdose in his old age. He said in an interview (https://www.erowid.org/culture/characters/hofmann_albert/hofmann_albert_interview1.shtml), however, that his first “trip” with the psychedelic was crushing and that “the unpredictability of effects is the major danger of LSD”. “My first planned self-experiment with LSD was a "bum trip" as one would say nowadays,” he said, adding that if the use of the drug were at present legal, which is not the case, then is would be “handled best by a ripe, stabilized person with a meaningful reason for taking LSD”. Microdosing and doping James Oroc, the author of the book Tryptamine Palace: 5-MeO-DMT and the Sonoran Desert Toad, extensively wrote about the correlation between psychedelics and extreme sports, arguing that microdosing reportedly improves both stamina and abilities in athletes. A report by the Cycling Independent Reform Commission (CIRC) looked at the problem of doping in professional cycling, focusing in particular on how some riders are now microdoping to stay within the limits of the Biological Passport.