This comprises of attenuation of blood vessels, waxy disc pallor and a mottled appearance of the retinal pigment epithelium which is caused by the formation of bone spicule. Internal limiting membrane wrinkling, buried drusen of the optic nerve head, cystoid macula edema, cataracts (usually PSC) and vitreous pigmentation and syneresis may also be seen. Symptoms of this disease include night blindness, tunnel vision, photopsia, photophobia, difficulty adjusting from light to dark environments and vice versa, blurry vision, poor colour separation, loss of central vision (late stage) and blindness eventually. RP may occur as an isolated disease (non syndromic which is the typical form of disease) or in combination with systemic disease (syndromic). Usher syndrome is the most common form of syndromic RP.
The surgeon will take a hard-to-reach tissue sample during the surgery. o Stereotactic Biopsy: During this process, either CT or MRI is used. The images captured by these devices help the surgeon to determine the exact location of the needle in the targeted tissue from the tumor. o Needle Biopsy: Like other needle biopsies, the surgeon uses a needle to remove the suspicious tissue sample. But a small hole in the skull is first made, known as blur hole in order to pass the needle through it.
The MRI scan of the brain began with non – contrast scanning of the brain. Since Angiocentric Glioma pathological features are similar with other types of brain tumors such as astrocytomas and ependymomas, this made the diagnosis using MRI become more challenging. The tensor tractography imaging was used in the diagnostic including the axial and sagittal T1 weighted, axial T2 weighted, axial diffusion-weighted and also axial diffusion. From the non – contrast scanning in T1 weighted image, scalp appear bright in the image. Meanwhile skull of the brain was in dark signal.
Angiography If the CT or the LP reveals the presence of blood angiography is performed to identify where the aneurysm is located and to plan treatment. Angiography where a catheter is threaded into the arteries of the brain and dye is injected while pictures are taken can demonstrate the anatomy of the arteries and uncover the presence and location of an aneurysm. CT angiography or MR angiography may be performed without threading catheters into the brain as is the case with a formal
Fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) is affected to show the episode. The feeling of stabbing pain in upper jaw and teeth and slowly radiating towards nose is due to defective function of the maxillary nerve. The nerve is the second branch of trigeminal nerve. The initiating or trigger point is the loss of sensory or motor function of the second branch of fifth cranial nerve (Richard & Sanders, 2010) The following are the cranial nerves that involve in regulation of functions of eye o Optic nerve: The sensory nerve is a second cranial nerve help in whole process of sight and vision. The nerve involves in the transmission of electrical signals from the various parts of eye to CNS (brain), then the brain send an appropriate response in the form of an image to see (the objects what we see around us).
were first to note that Kimura disease is different from angiolymphoid hyperplasia. Kimura’s disease occurred mainly around the ear with frequent involvement of salivary gland.  The lesions are rubbery and irregular or nodular. Cut surface is gray to light brown and may contain embedded lymph nodes and attached salivary gland and muscle.  Microscopically the lesions are unencapsulated and ill defined, characterized by fibrocollagenous tissue, lymphoid tissue and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate with numerous eosinophils.
D. It is also responsible for artistic abilities and our imagination. VIII. The bilateral nature of human beings means many of out body parts have 2 symmetrical identical parts such as lungs, kidneys, legs, hands, and the brain are both identical on both sides of the body. Science based out look on brain symmetry left and right is a good beginning to research on brain behavior relationships. This topic has been recently updated in the profession of neuroscience.
It allows the neurologist to detect diseases at its early stages (Galotti, 2008). PET scans measure the blood flow to different regions of the brain, resulting in an electronic reconstruction of a picture of the brain, outlining which areas of the brain are most active at a particular time (Galotti, 2008; Posner & Raichle, 1994). There are several advantages and disadvantages of a PET scan. The positive aspect of a PET scan enables early detection of certain neurological illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy. In addition, it is used as an alternative to a biopsy to determine how far a disease has spread (Galotti, 2008; Posner & Raichle, 1994).
In case of medical image segmentation the aim is to study anatomical structure and identify Region of Interest i.e. locate tumor, lesion and other abnormalities, measure tissue volume to measure growth of tumor. The role of segmentation is crucial in most tasks requiring image analysis. The success or failure of the task is often a direct consequence of the success or failure of segmentation. However, a reliable and accurate segmentation of an image is, in general, very difficult to achieve by purely automatic
Abstract — Brain magnetic resonance (MR) segmentation algorithms are critical to analyze tissues and diagnose edema and tumor in a quantitative way. The primary aim of brain image segmentation is to partition a given brain image into different regions representing anatomical structures. In this paper, we present a new effective segmentation algorithm that segments brain MR images into tumor, edema, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The detection of the healthy tissues and the diseased tissues are performed for examining the change caused by the spread of tumor and edema on healthy tissues is very important for treatment planning. We developed an algorithm for skull stripping before the segmentation process.
Name: Horner 's syndrome Overview: The syndrome of Horner is a neuro-ophthalmological that develops after an interruption of nerve fibers nice ranging from the hypothalamus to eye. Possible damage to the central level that causes this syndrome is the lesion, compression or ischemia of the brain stem. Other conditions that determine the Horner syndrome is syringomyelia and some cancers marrow or brain (eg. neuroblastoma). Interruptions devices, however, can result from head and neck trauma, cervical lymphadenopathy, lung tumors Pancoast, aortic dissection or carotid artery and thoracic aortic aneurysm.
3) Binarize To binarize the image the ridges are denotted by black and furrow are denotted by the white. J=I(1,1,1)>150 imshow(J) set(gcf,"position",[1,1,500,500] 4) Thining The thining of riges excluded the abnormal pixels until they can be defined as one pixel. K=bwmorph(~J, 'thin ', 'inf '); imshow(~K)
A special test that uses dye, known as gastrointestinal contrast radiography, may also be performed. Prior to the test, the cat will be given an oral dose of a dye solution called barium. The dye illuminates the gastrointestinal tract during X-rays. Multiple X-rays will be taken of the gastric tract as the barium passing through the cat 's digestive system, allowing the veterinarian to look identify the tumor. Rarely, an endoscopy may be performed.
The TRITC dyed cells depict better the whole structure of the cell, the nucleus is more visible than those that are dyed with FITC. 5.) On the controlled slide both microfilaments and microtubules are visible because it is treated with both anti-tubulin as well as anti-actin. The control is necessary because when observing just one of the antibodies you can go back and compare it and see if the structure correlate with what you
Jessica Vandeventer 23 March 2016 Quantitative Spectroscope and Visible Light Purpose/Question- The purpose of the lab is to build a diffraction grating spectroscope, and to view different lights. We also are going to draw the light spectra of the various light sources. Hypothesis– Each light sources will have a different spectral, but there will be some similarities in the different light sources. Data Tables/ Graphs – Analysis Questions- Exercise 1: Building and Calibrating a Spectroscope Questions A. Hold the grating several inches from your face, at an angle.