Irritable Bowel Syndrome Case Studies

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Adult

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not one specific disease. It is a group of symptoms that occur together. IBS affects the organs responsible for digestion (gastrointestinal or GI tract).
To regulate how your GI tract works, your body sends signals back and forth between your intestines and your brain. If you have IBS, there may be a problem with these signals. As a result, your GI tract does not work the way it should. The intestines may become more sensitive and overreact. This is especially true when you eat certain foods or are under stress.
There are four types of IBS. These may be determined based on the consistency of your stool:
• IBS with diarrhea.
• IBS with constipation.
• Mixed IBS.
• Unsubtyped
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The main symptom is abdominal pain or discomfort. Additional symptoms usually include one or more of the following:
• Diarrhea, constipation, or both.
• Abdominal swelling or bloating.
• Feeling full or sick after eating a small or regular-size meal.
• Frequent gas.
• Mucus in the stool.
• A feeling of having more stool left after a bowel movement.
Symptoms tend to come and go.

DIAGNOSIS
There is no specific test to diagnose IBS. Your health care provider will make a diagnosis based on a physical exam, medical history, and your symptoms. You may have other tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing your symptoms. These may include:
• Blood tests.
• X-rays.
• Endoscopy. This looks at your GI tract with a long, thin, flexible tube (endoscope).

TREATMENT
There is no cure for IBS, but treatment can help relieve symptoms. IBS treatment often includes:
• Changes to your diet, such as:
○ Eating more fiber. This may help with IBS.
○ Avoiding foods that cause symptoms.
○ Drinking more water.
○ Eating regular, medium-sized portioned meals.
• Medicines. These may
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Medicine to control diarrhea (antidiarrheal medicines).
○ Medicine to help control muscle spasms in your GI tract (antispasmodic medicines).
○ Medicines to help with any mental health issues, such as anti-depressants or tranquilizers.
• Therapy.
○ Talk therapy may help with anxiety, depression, or other mental health issues that can make IBS symptoms worse.
• Stress reduction.
○ Managing your stress can help keep symptoms under control.

HOME CARE INSTRUCTIONS
• Take medicines only as directed by your health care provider.
• Eat a healthy diet.
○ Avoid foods and drinks with added sugar.
○ Include more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables gradually into your diet. This may be especially helpful if you have IBS with constipation.
○ Avoid any foods and drinks that make your symptoms worse. These may include dairy products and caffeinated or carbonated drinks.
○ Do not eat large meals.
○ Drink enough fluid to keep your urine clear or pale yellow.
• Exercise regularly. Ask your health care provider for recommendations of good activities for you.
• Keep all follow-up visits as directed by your health care provider. This is

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