ing such a type of narrative represents a danger, as not always readers do understand that a narrator is not the final voice of truth and authority. Some readers might even confuse the author with the narrator, further deluding themselves. The unreliable author is most present in mystery novels, where their unreliability is often revealed as a part of the final resolution. Numerous cases of unreliable narrators have been recoreded through history in literature. When speaking about European literature in accordance with the concept of unreliable narrators, there are quite a few present-day works of fiction that fit.
In the poem, “For That He Looked Not upon Her,” the poet, George Gascoigne, communicates his fickle attitude towards his lover. With the use of standard Shakespearean sonnet form, exaggerated diction and vivid imagery he explains why the speaker is bound to avoid his ex-lovers eyes, since they can spell him to live a life with further deception and heartache. Gascoigne’s practice of sonnet form consists of the “ABAB” rhyme scheme, couplet, and four stanzas adding emphasis on the protagonists reluctance to see his lover’s face. As the poem progresses it becomes clear on why the speaker is warry. The poem includes paradoxing examples that elaborate his complex situation.
Humans react to their surroundings, thus shaping their own behaviors and thought processes. “Bullet” by Kim Church examines the relationships between the narrator and two other men, as well as the role of bullets in her encounters with them. The first man, Hobart, is her husband who displays abusive tendencies, while the second, the man who robbed her store, uses violence in a very different way. Hobart prefers the use of brute force to achieve the narrator’s submission, but the robber gains victory through mental manipulation. However, in her encounters with both men, the narrator fixates on the object that they both possess rather than their actions.
Many of Poe’s greatest works have left the readers inquiring about the sanity of the narrator. One of those works would be “The Black Cat”, among others. The narrator’s actions in the book bring about many questions and speculations. It is unmistakable that the narrator’s actions in “The Black Cat” show that the narrator’s insanity. There are multiple instances in “The Black Cat” that shows the mental sanity of the narrator.
In Confetti Girl by Diana Lopez, the narrator has a very different viewpoint of the situation than her dad. First, they definitely do not agree on priorities. I the story, it states, “Nothing’s more important than his books and vocabulary words. He might say I matter, but when he goes on a scavenger hunt for a book, I realize that I really don’t.” This shows that the narrator’s dad doesn’t take her opinion into account when he is choosing books for her.
“As the receptionist hung up the receiver, he wondered why Aringarosa’s phone connection sounded so crackly. The bishop’s daily schedule showed him in New York this weekend, and yet he sounded a world away. The receptionist shrugged it off. Bishop Aringarosa had been acting very strangely the last few months.” “He wondered why Aringarosa’s phone connection sounded so crackly,” shows third person narration.
In the short story “The Cask of Amontillado” Edgar Allan Poe uses many techniques to create and heighten the suspense of the story. In the article "Poe and the Gothic of the Normal: Thinking 'Inside the Box'" written by Elaine Hartnell-Mottram says, “this tale is told by an unhelpful first-person narrator, who is also the protagonist, to an addressee who is not directly involved in the action of the narrative and about whom we can deduce nothing with any certainty”. Nothing is certain in this short story. Poe uses many sources of irony and foreshadowing during the short story as well. As the story begins, there is suspense built up between the two main characters, Montresor and Fortunato.
During the Spanish Inquisition many people were tormented and killed because of their religious beliefs. In Edgar Allan’s Poe gothic tale Pit and Pendulum, is told by an unnamed narrator, takes place in a dungeon at Toledo, Spain. The narrator was sentenced to death because of the difference in religious beliefs. Instead of being hanged, he is tormented physically and mentally in the darkness of the dungeon. Edgar Allan Poe uses darkness, evil, and torture in the short story Pit and Pendulum through the character’s thoughts and actions.
Crazy and Innocent How can a person who has mental illnesses know what he is doing when he kills an old man? In the story an insane man conceives a plan and then murders an elderly man and then confesses. In "The Tell Tale Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator is innocent by means of insanity of murdering the old man because he has a mental disease, cannot express emotion properly, and can hear noises in his head.
In Edgar Allan Poe’s tales of criminal insanity, the first-person narrators confess unsound confessions. They control the narrative, which only allows us to see through their eyes. However, they do describe their own pathological or psychological actions so conscientiously that they exhibit their own insanity. They are usually incapable of stepping back from their narratives to detect their own madness. The narrator 's’ fluency is meticulous and often opulent.