History is something that suffers from survivorship bias i.e. those who overcame their adversaries get to write their version of the events. Knox theory is based on erroneous empirical evidence whose lack of substance he accepts in his book “The races of man”. Based on detailed autopsy of a single colored person, he casts an entire race as inferior based on the fact that the subject’s mental and physical capacities were of an inferior nature thereby; colored people were subservient to white people. Another theory that is cited by racists in order to strengthen their argument is Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Social Darwinism is the result of applying Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution to human society, and one of the forefront Social Darwinists was none other than William Graham Sumner. In general, the concept of Social Darwinism has many pros such as “breeding” out weakness and disease, supporting the strong, and encouraging the development of a more advanced society. It also as many disadvantages, however, such as a smaller gene pool, hindering the weak, and controlling who gets to have children. Using the writings of both Darwin and Sumner, these pros and cons will be explored to prove that the negatives of Social Darwinism outweigh the positives. To begin, the first pro of Social Darwinism is the elimination of weakness and disease.
This gave rise to belief that there was a “hierarchy” of races and that the Europeans were at the top of the hierarchy. Imperialists used genetics as a justified explanation to why white people were more superior to other races. Darwin believed that animal species was adapting and changing to environments in the process of evolution. Never did Darwin suggest that this was meant to apply to humans and their societies, cultures and races. However although the theory adapted by Herbert Spencer, and originally created by Darwin, contributed towards imperialism and colonisation it was not the sole cause of it.
Individual racism: When the racism precede from one individual their culture and their comments. Individual Racism is connected to from broader socio-economic histories and processes and is supported by systemic racism. Because we live in such a culture of individualism (and with the privilege of freedom of speech), some people argue that their statements/ideas are not racist because they are just "personal opinion." 2. Institutional racism: When established laws, customs, larger organizations or group puts regulations in place that put people down.
They want to become a lover of white man. Because of their blackness they feel inferior for example they said “I am black, not because of a curse, but because my skin has been able to capture all the cosmic effluvia”. The dominant colonial culture, he argued that the black skin of Negro was identified as impurity. The colonial women shown up their identities with their whiteness and attempting to avoid black men and to get close to the white men. Fanon uses psychoanalytic theory to explain the feeling of interdependency and unfitness that black people experienced in white world.
He looked at racism and how shifts have been made with regards to how we classify people into these different racial groups. Hall argued that racism is the natural connection that one makes between how one looks, ‘the difference between hair, skin and bone” - W.E.B. Du Bois, and their intelligence. What this came down to is that he saw racists as individuals who believe that race and the characteristics linked to it are biologically in our genes and are thus not a result of our environment. This is however not what he believed.
Racism – Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior. According to the Oxford English Dictionary’s first recorded utterance of the word racism was by a named Richard Henry Pratt in 1902, Pratt was against the evils of racial segregation and he quotes, “Segregating any class or race of people apart from the rest of the people kills the progress of the segregated people or makes their growth very slow. Association of races and classes is necessary to destroy racism and classism.” Although Pratt might have been the first person to inveigh against racism and it deleterious effects by name, he is much better remembered for a very different lineage: Kill
Small states would not have abilities to prevent themselves from being conquered by foreign countries and this means a large state will be more functional and beneficial to all citizens. Nationalist referred them as comrades instead of individuals and it inspired people to get rid of selfishness but cooperate with each other in order to maximize the power of Germany. ( Doc 5 ) Otto von Bismarck’s speech about how he would do anything to unify Germany shown the influence that nationalism brings. Otto said he considered absolutism and constitutionalism the best forms of government instead of dictatorship. He was an opponent of nationalism and he realized that he could
Machiavelli’s views are based on a constant improvement of the state. In contrast, More’s ideas on a flawless civilization have the superior framework for a happy, comfortable, and stable society. In Utopia, the avoidance of war showcases true internal strength. Even though Machiavelli states, “war can’t be avoided, and putting it off will work to the advantage of others,” he fails to notice the strategic ways More describes in his preventions of war. Machiavelli’s brutish method to win wars leads to the downfall of his own population which More evades.
Rawls believed that everyone in society should have had equal political rights, although social and economic inequalities existed, but only under the condition that they were to the maximum advantage of the least advantaged people in society. On the other hand, while philosopher Robert Nozick paid a generous tribute to the brilliance of Rawls’ philosophical construction, he provides a rejection to Rawls’ claims from a libertarian perspective. Libertarians have the desire to divide and limit power. That is, government will be limited generally through a written constitution limiting the powers that the people delegate to government (Boaz, 2015). Nozick stated that Rawls’ idea would have resulted in the restriction of free choice or forced distribution within the society.