the victim. Innocent until proven guilty is recognized as the slogan for our country’s law system. But back when segregation was still around and if you were African American it was the other way around. For Tom Robinson in the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee his fate was judged as so. One of three factors that led to Tom Robinson’s murder was the accusation of rape, the next factor was the time period, and the last factor was when Robinson was on trial he said he felt pity towards Mayella Ewell in regards to her being poor as well.
Second problem with his argument is that it is unjustified. For example the law ‘Stop and Frisk’ “Judge Rules NYPD Stop and Frisk Practices Unconstitutional, Racially Discriminatory. August 12, 2013, New York – In a landmark decision, a federal court found the New York City Police Department 's highly controversial stop-and-frisk practices unconstitutional. Judge Shira Scheindlin found the NYPD’s practices to violate New Yorkers’ Fourth Amendment rights to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures and also found that the practices were racially discriminatory in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.”
Racism like other sociological concepts has existed throughout human’s history. It is defined as the conviction that a particular race is superior to the other according to their moral and social characteristics. This term is often negatively viewed, especially in terms of morals; therefore, if somebody appears to be a racist, he or she is described as unworthy or immoral. The believe that passage of civil rights legislation did away with racially discriminatory practices has made most white Americans and African Americans to lack recognition that racism exists. Wellman, (1993) emphasizes that race is a solemn category in America, how one is racially chosen greatly affects the experience of being an American.
Michelle Alexander, a civil rights lawyer and legal scholar, argues not only that mass incarceration is a “well-disguised system of racialized social control that functions in a manner strikingly similar to Jim Crow"(4), but that the prison label placed on convicts is “more damaging to the African American community than the shame and stigma associated with Jim Crow’ (17). While I had previous knowledge of the systematic racial oppression that continues to hold power in our country, I did not have any idea of to what extent the label of ‘felon’ has on the life
It is a prejudice against individuals with a dark skin tone, who are among people of the same ethnic group. Colorism disadvantages dark-skinned people, while privileging those with lighter skin. Colorism is closely related to smaller incomes, lower marriage rates, longer prison terms and fewer job prospects for darker-skinned people. " Scout," said Atticus, "nigger-lover is just one of those terms that don't mean anything—like snot-nose. It's hard to explain—ignorant, trashy people use it when they think somebody's favoring Negroes over and above themselves.
Impact of racism in To Kill a Mockingbird In present time, the United States prides itself on ensuring the law equally applies to all citizens of the United States of America. However, the argument that court rulings are unjust, especially among minorities could be made. Justice does definitely not apply equally to the people of America during the era of Jim Crow laws, and preexisting racial prejudice.
The creation of the white racial hierarchy had to occur in order to categorize the United States, preventing disorder . However, because of the terrible creation of “acceptable terrorism” in America, the inequitable racial structure created by the rich white male, and the unjust atmospheres where black citizens experienced social injustices because of the melanin in their skin, it is apparent that white supremacy groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, in the United States had a negative impact on the communities of color, especially Africans & African-Americans, within the American society. In America, white supremacy was terrible, with its humanitarian threats toward the public. When placed under different conditions and white bias, the creation of acceptable
The government, he said, "is responsible for the oppression and exploitation and degradation of Black people in this country.... This government has failed the Negro." According to Malcolm, one of the ways in which the government had "failed the Negro" was its unwillingness to enforce the law. He pointed out that the Supreme Court had outlawed segregation, "Whenever you are going after something that is yours, you are within your legal rights to lay claim to it. And anyone who puts forth any effort to deprive you of that which is yours, is breaking the law is a criminal.
It shows the contradiction of the Finches and the Ewells upper class and lower class, how the Finches have a nice home while the Ewells have a run down place by the garbage, depicting even what they are, white trash. However, no matter how low of class they may be and how poor they are, Tom Robinson will still be found guilty because he is black. At no fault of his own, Tom is a black man who is accused of raping a white woman, and a white jury cannot just ignore a white woman. The guilty verdict was depicted because a white man was going against a black man, and in that stance alone, the African Americans were lower than the whites in the town of Maycomb. Therefore, Tom was automatically guilty despite the piling evidence that he couldn't have done it.
According to David Goldberg 's “All Lives Matter” Disregards Race-Based Inequality," blacks in the United States aren’t supposed to completely belong. They are denied decent employment and education, being animalized, criminalized and killed daily. Goldberg makes a crucial point saying, “Black people have represented the country in the highest of ways while being maligned in the most malicious of ways.” He couldn’t be more right. Blacks are athletic, vocally talented, even superior enough to be president of the United States.
Felon disenfranchisement is not only unconstitutional but also further institutionalizes racism. For example, in communities consisting of minorities like African Americans and Hispanics felony disenfranchisement unlawfully create a disadvantage for freedom of speech. As stated by Eric H. Holder, JD a US Attorney General “although well over a century has passed since post-Reconstruction …the impact of felony disenfranchisement on modern communities of color remains both disproportionate and unacceptable.” The act of taking away someone’s right to vote notably mirrors the act of forbidding African Americans to vote during the post-Reconstruction Era. Holder refers to the fact that taking away the right to vote essentially withdraws any opinions that minorities
A book on this topic, The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander, explains how the criminal justice system “Intentionally targets poor uneducated black men.” Michelle Alexander , author of The New Jim Crow, claims that the prison system is a racial hierarchy and reform is ineffective, the only true solution is to dismantle the prison system altogether. This claim seems drastic but
Even before our nation’s founding, people of color have been discriminated. Decades pass and the criminal justice system is still “racist” labeling people of color as criminal, meaning black equal criminals therefore is fine to discriminate people of color just because they’re criminals. In “The New Jim Crow” the system targets black men because they are associated with crime, meaning crime stands in for race. In the other hand, As Heather Mac Donald writes in her book “The War on Cops”, “The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. But the problem is how society defines crime and criminals” (154).
The United States Constitution Fourteenth Amendment also protects American citizens. The amendments of citizens in the U.S. make the policy unfair because it turns out to be a case of racial profiling. The fourteenth amendment states that American citizens should all have Rights Guaranteed Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection. “A new report from the New York Civil Liberties Union that offers a "complete factual record of stop-and-frisk activity" in New York City between 2002 and 2013 has found that this unconstitutionally performed policing tactic was largely ineffective at reducing violent crime, a clear rebuttal to right-wing media 's frequent justifications for the practice.” (Hatcher- Mays 1) Although the stop and seizure policy data proves to be successful in one type of way; misconduct of police officers evade the protection of citizens by the U.S constitution making it unequal treatment to the people in these