Suleyman, another Ottoman ruler conquered Baghdad, the Tigris and Euphrates, and Belgrade. Suleyman made the Ottomans a naval force as well - they had control over the Aegean and Black Sea. The Safavid rulers were also very religious. They believed in Twelver Shiism (elaborated in previous IDs), and many believed that Ismail, a Safavid ruler, was 12th imam. Followers wore red hats, thus being called qizilbash.
Two powerful Middle Eastern Islamic Empires of the 15th century included the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire. Both the Ottomans and Safavid were powerful and they fought for that power and to conquer territory. Due to their geographical location, they benefited from trade between Europe and Asia. According to eCore Unit 1(n.d.), the Ottomans and the Safavid were both Muslims, though they differed in their Muslim beliefs. With the death of Muhammad (the founder and leader of Islam) in 632 AD, there was disagreement over who would be the Islamic leader.
Introduction: The Abbasid Caliphate, who ruled the Islamic world after the Ummayads, portrayed the golden era of the Islamic civilization. The Abbasid’s ruled the Islamic civilization from 750 to 1258 AD, causing it to be one of the greatest, most powerful, and most leading Islamic dynasties that ever existed. The Abbasid’s early history shows how it was one of the biggest empires ever established as it spread all the way from Far East to far west. This allowed the Abbasids to capture some of the important values and traditions of those cultures that they dominated. The rise of the Abbasid The Abbasid Dynasty started as result of the revolution they conducted against the Umayyad’s dynasty because of the hatred the Umayyad’s had towards many groups that have all gathered under the name of the Abbasid.
The Abbasid Dynasty: The Golden Age of Islamic Civilization Because of a few exceptionally competent caliphs and their guides, the Abbasid Caliphate flourished through the early ninth century, notwithstanding the significant difficulties of decision an enormous and multiethnic domain. Al-Ma'mun embraced the radical Mu'tazili religious philosophy, which was impacted by Greek logic and held that God could be seen through reasonable request, and that conviction and practice ought to be liable to reason. He built the mihna, a probe in which the adherence of researchers and authorities to Mu'tazili philosophy was tried, and they could be detained or even murdered in the event that they didn't take after the religious philosophy. Accordingly, al-Ma'mun's rule saw a becoming division between the Isalmic sovereign and the Isalmic individuals. This division was exacerbated by his production of a multitude of Central Asian fighters faithful just to him.
DBQ #2 The Islamic Caliphate gave way to much change in the Middle East during its reigning times, roughly 600-1300 C.E. Many political, economic, and social changes were imposed by the Caliph to different regions and cultures. New political changes were imposed on the people of Arabia and Africa. Christians and Jews also faced pressure from Muslims to convert due to benefits. Women’s rights also changed as part of the Caliphate.
The Abbasid dynasty was very inclusive to many people, given the time period. This imperial territory extended from Spain along the coast of North Africa, through the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, Central Asia, and even over to northwest India. (Gettleman, 2003, 7-8) This dynasty rules for 500 years as Sunnis and brought the Golden Age of Islam. This period of great prosperity for the Islamic world occurred during the Dark Ages of Western Europe. The fact that Europe was in an economic and cultural depression after the decline of the Roman Empire greatly assisted the growth of the Islamic empire.
He inherited the Islamic Empire from his father, Selim I, who is credited for changing the landscape from what it used to be. Under his reign, the Ottoman Empire expanded such that it covered a significant part of the Arabic world. When Sultan Suleyman inherited the empire, he began his reign by getting rid of threats that had continued to affect the influence of the Ottoman realm. In doing so, he wanted to ensure that everyone recognized the power of the Ottoman Empire and that no one would be tempted to take advantage of the young sultan (Morgan & Reid, 2010). Unlike his father, Suleyman wanted to see the Ottoman Empire reach the peak of political and military power.
Daniel W. Brown also writes that amidst the conquests of the Arabs, “Christians continued to be Christians and Jews continued to be Jews.” Another scholar, G. R. Hawting, argues that the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, Caliph Mu’awiya, “was respectful of the traditions of his Christian subjects” that he has a member of a Greek Orthodox family as a political official and advisor. Sicker’s observation, that there are instances where “Christian officials who earlier had served the Byzantine government were retained in their positions,” furthers Hawting’s argument, and supports the notion that Mu’awiya is a caliph who is not
This development of Islam in Africa not just prompted the arrangement of new groups in Africa, yet it likewise reconfigured existing African groups and domains to be founded on Islamic models. Adelabu pointed at the fame and impacts of the Abbasid Dynasty, the second incredible line with the rulers conveying the title of "Caliph" as cultivating serene and prosperous relocation of the between refined Muslims from the Nile Valley to Niger and in addition of the Arab dealers from the desert to Benue. Adelabu's case is by all accounts in accordance with the customary verifiable perspective that the triumph of North Africa by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate between AD 647–709 viably finished Christianity in Africa for a few centuries. In the sixteenth century, the Ouaddai Empire and the Kingdom of Kano grasped Islam, and later toward the eighteenth century, the Nigeria based Sokoto Caliphate drove by Usman dan Fodio applied significant exertion in spreading
INTRODUCTION The Ajuran Sultanate or Ajuran Empire was known as a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over the large parts of the Northeast Africa consists of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia and dominated the regional trade during the 5th to the 15th century during the era of Medieval Ages. Ajuran Sultanate was very well-known during 13th century until the late 17th century because of their strong centralized administration and has an aggressive military towards invaders. This empire also left an extensive architectural legacy, including castles, fortress building and pillar tombs fields attributed to the Ajuran engineers. Because of the theocratic nature of the Ajuran government, many peoples come from many regions in East Africa had converted to Islam. According to the history, the Ajuran Sultanate emerged and established by the House of Gareen and they were the one who ruling this empire until the 17th century.