Ancient And Medieval History Essay

1573 Words7 Pages
Hasanzade Ismayil Ancient and Medieval History
To what extent, in what ways, did societies of Middle East change in the early Islamic period (622-750)? Before emerging of Islamic religion Arabs had lived the Arabian Peninsula which covered parts of Byzantine Empire such as Syria, EGHPT, and Sassanid Empire from the west, some parts of African continent, Persian Gulf, and Indian Ocean. They were stateless communities that majority of Arabs resided as tribes such as “Qurayish of Macca” and “Banu Hanifa of Yamama” in eastern Arabia. These tribes traded each other but there were not any kind of governmental or leadership skills in tribes to constitute themselves as one nation. They were not any kind of legal systems to make one legitimate power for whole Arabic communities which Islamic rules will do subsequently (Kennedy, H (1986) “the Prophet and age of caliphates, page 15-22)” Till the Islamic state Arab peninsula not completely had been manipulated different empires such as ancient Roman (27BC-467AD), Byzantine, and Sassanid empires which delivered their cultures to these Arabic tribes. For examples, archeologist found several antic roman city
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Othman controlled the empire carefully and improved society. In his time, anti-Islam thinkers such as Mu’awiya who was the son of Abu Sufiyan, Umayyad emerged. They did illegal activities, and made conspiracy against Othman. Only one leader Ali existed after Othman’s death so that according to Umma decision Ali accepted the caliphate status 656- 61 CE. Whereas, Ali did not punish Othman’s murders, and he signed contract between them. This contract which gave power to Mu’awiya to control Syria, and caused disagreement among Umma who turned against Ali. As a result, Ali was assassinated by his enemies 40 AH, his death terminated the first era of history of Islam, and the Umayyad dynasty started 661, 49AH, (pp
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