the Islamic culture is viewed as oppressive, irrational, backward, and patriarchal because of the incorporation of the traditional Islamic culture and absence of the civic culture. The countries view the resistance to secularization as rejection of democracy, equality, rule of law- the notions which the Muslims struggle to bring to their countries. According to Huntington, the western ideas of free market, separation of the church and the state face little opposition in primary Islamic countries. The difference is mainly due to power structures and political realities in the United States and Middle East countries like Iraq and Iran. There is a general perception of incompatibility of the Muslim and western values.
On the facts showing the existence and widespread resurgence of Islamic movements in the Arab countries and non-Arab Islamic world. Islamophobic sentiment increasingly manifest following the detonation event of the WTC and the Pentagon (9/11) in 2001. Although the cause of the tragedy is not clear and its main actors, but the accusations by the neocons West (USA and Western Europe) focused on Islamic groups. That accusation was then led to hatred and excessive fear in Western societies to Islam and Islamic groups, who then called Islamophobia or Xenophobia. In the US, the expression of Islamophobia is not too thick.
In that points, religion enters the pictures. Arab countries divided by different religious or different sectarian. In the case of Egypt, there are Christians and Muslims. Both of them do not want to live together so Egypt face with some coup. Therefore, Egypt have some trouble to being nations.
To begin with, Edward Said considers Thomas Carlyle 's “The Hero as Prophet: Mahomet: Islam” as neither a genuine nor a scientific Orientalist philologist study. It deals with the Islamic matter as an over-generalized manner. Said also accuses Carlyle of ignorance of the reality of the revelation and the holy Quran. He argues that Carlyle had been influenced by the nineteenth century Orientalist discourse and contributed to it. He describes the essay as "a nonprofessional analogue to Caussin 's Mohammed, a Mohammed forced to serve a thesis totally overlooking the historical and cultural circumstances of the Prophet 's own time and place.
Islamophobia is a hatred and fear toward Islam and Muslims that results in discrimination creating a distorted understanding of Islam and Muslims. In the western countries such as the United States, France and the United Kingdom Islamophobia is one of the contemporary manifestations of the problem of prejudice and racism that has afflicted the nation since its earliest days. Muslims have been involved in historical American movements combatting prejudice, but only after the 9/11 terror attacks have they become a primary focus for purveyors of hate. Acts of terrorism, such as the September 11 attack (2001), Paris, the Charlie Hebdo attack in January of 2015, and a Mosque bombing in Yemen that killed 130 in March of 2015, have caused such fear
Edward 's propensity to undervalue the significance if not to remove the authority of religion and history on the modern Middle Eastern encouraged a number of Arab critic of his effort. These writers fought to bring societal changes in their countries, unsuccessful in their fight against various values and concepts, such as inequity against women, specifically because their associate society alleged that such thoughts were Islamic. The inconsistency is that Arab leftist scholars, who approved out field s in the Middle East, reached conclusions that were not far from individuals of the Middle Eastern researches, scholars recognized by Edward with discrimination and
That he chooses to develop his appearance to match the Western stereotype of an Islamist only furthers his alienation, and one is forced to question whether he is an outsider spurned or a malcontent extricating himself from a society he no longer idolizes. This is important, as it is not simply America who rejects Changez, but Changez who rejects the American ideal – whether one is borne from the other is difficult to
THE VOICES OF DISSENT: FRANTZ FANON AND MOHAMMAD IQBAL Author: Dr. TanveerHussain IqbalInstitute of Culture and Philosophy, Kashmir University ABSTRACT This paper tries to explore the counter-discourse dimension in the works of Frantz Fanon and Muhammad Iqbal. Orientalism divides world into halves, namely, the Orient and the Occident. This division is not done on equal footing, rather Orient is placed in opposition to Occident. If Orient is place of barbarism, ignorance and moral deprivation, then Occident is full of culture knowledge and ethical values. This asymmetrical relationship makes Occident all what Orient is not.
Anti-cosmopolitanism in Justine Anti-cosmopolitans reject the view of cosmopolitan universalism and its embrace of different moralities, cultures, races and nationalities. They prefer absolute and contextual morality; meaning morals depending on the situations. Anti-cosmopolitanism is extremely prominent in Justine. Lawrence Durrell 's stance towards Alexandrian cosmopolitanism, in light of his Irish Origin, underlies a Western imperialistic tone throughout the novel. The historical background behind the novel is extremely essential to the understanding of Lawrence Durrell 's criticisms.
Among other his well-known and most influential book of the 20th century is Orientalism, where he portrayed the biased and stereotype of the western scholars when studying the Islamic world questioning their misinterpretation of them. This is because orientalism is emerged during the period of European enlightenment which brings about the reasons of the West superiority over the East for a reason of European colonialism to make sense of the history when the East that are seen as different and need intervention and supported the Western colonial policy. To note that, the term ‘Orientalism’ is not invented by Said rather by those who studied or specialists about the Middle