Literature Review Islamic City Architecture

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2.0 Literatures Review
This chapter will describe about literatures review about the development of Islamic city and it environment build.

2.1 Introduction
There is no firm consensus on what the term Islamic city’ means. It can mean a city founded by Muslims during some particular, historical epoch. Or a city whose design, construction and expansion took place during epochs dominated by Islamic civilization. Or a city that has in it certain, specific features generally identified as Islamic’ mosques and minarets for example. Or a city, old or new, that happens to be located within the Islamic world. And finally, the term is sometimes used as a theoretical or abstract concept, a kind of ideal city whose architectural styles and relationships are inspired by full adherence to the norms and values of Islam.

2.2 Literatures Review
The spread of Islam to various lands in Asia, Africa and Europe had an irreversible and overwhelming impact on urban development. Islam is an urban religion. Religious practices, beliefs and values, especially those
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In addition to the influence of local topography and morphological features of pre-existing towns, the Islamic city reflected the general socio-cultural, political, and economic structures of the newly created society. In general this involved the following features.
2.3.1 Natural Laws

The first principle that defined much of the character of the Islamic city is the adaptation of the built form and plan of the city to natural circumstances expressed through weather conditions and topography. These were expressed in the adoption of concepts such as courtyard, terrace, narrow covered streets and gardens. Such elements were designed for coping with hot weather conditions dominating the environment in most of the regions of the Islamic world.

2.3.2 Religious and cultural

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