While opponents of the empire fought, it helped Islam become a strong empire. Karen Armstrong, a modern writer about the culture of Islam explains how Persia and Byzantium engaged in long and exhausting wars (Doc D). These two empires weakened each other, without Islam having to get involved in the wars which would have weakened themselves. The empire that the Muslims upheld was extremely strong in its military and political aspects, which helped it to spread geographically. The success of military conquests led to the spread of the culture.
They protected the citizens of the city they had taken control of, in return for a reasonable tax. This demonstrated the honesty and character of the Muslims and the Islamic Empire who made sure they kept every promise and did not deceive or steal from their allies. These characteristics were major factors that contributed to the rapid growth of Islam. When the Muslim soldiery attacked Spain, a treaty between
DBQ #2 The Islamic Caliphate gave way to much change in the Middle East during its reigning times, roughly 600-1300 C.E. Many political, economic, and social changes were imposed by the Caliph to different regions and cultures. New political changes were imposed on the people of Arabia and Africa. Christians and Jews also faced pressure from Muslims to convert due to benefits. Women’s rights also changed as part of the Caliphate.
By 630 CE, paganism successfully ended by the Prophet Muhammad, which unified Bedouin. After the prophet’s death, the Islamic civilization expand rapidly in Asia, Africa, and Europe. A new era was created by the Muslims who contributed many resources, intellectual and cultural achievements. The Islamic faith transformed the Post Classical period. The prophet Muhammad shaped Bedouin culture by unifying them, religiously, politically and intellectually, which made expansion possible through the feuding divisions of Islam and fragmenting powerful empires, the growth of Islam created more intellectual and cultural achievements that shaped the Muslim world.
With the death of Muhammad (the founder and leader of Islam) in 632 AD, there was disagreement over who would be the Islamic leader. The Safavid (known as Shi’ites) believed Ali (Muhammad’s son-in-law) should lead Islam. Ottomans (Sunni Muslims) did not agree with the Safavid on the succession of Muhammad. Many other divisions began as interpretations of the Islamic law differed. The Shi’ites were a minority and were often oppressed by the Ottomans.
Zoroaster, the founder and creator of Zoroastrianism, taught that one god, Ahura Mazda (God) was the ruler of the world. In contrast to that, Ahura Mazda was in constant battle with Ahriman, the prince of lies and evil. Each person had to choose a side, and on the final judgement day , people would be judged for their actions during life. Persia's geography also made Persia the empire that it was. The
Islam spread through trade. Muslim traders journeyed end to end of caliphate, exchanging good and information. Exchange brought Islam to west Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia. Mecca was a trade center because it was crossroads of the lucrative caravan trade. In Document A it shows the routes of the trade it expands to west Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia exchanging goods and information.
8. Safavid Empire (460-461) Ismail, the ancestor of Safi al-Din, founded the Safavid Empire and used Persian methods of ruling. He expanded his region over regions such as the Iranian plateau, Caucus, and central Asia. Ismail established his political base at the tomb of Safi al-Din. In an attempt to find favor in the eyes of Turkish in the region, the Safavids decided to convert to a form of Shiism - he forced the Sunnis to convert to the religion, Twelver Shiism.
He favored a more traditional balance of power in which the interests of Muslim and non-Muslims were heeded. After Sunni Ali’s death, the Muslim general Askia the Great took over. He created a centralized government and continued the expansion of the Songhai kingdom. Askia the Great, also known as Muhammad Ture, increased the importance of trading, religious, and educational centers. Muslim chroniclers remembered Askia the Great as the famous king of Songhai.
Islam spread quickly during the 600’s trade, choice, and conquest. The new religion of Islam was able to spread so quickly due to trade. The first reason is Mecca was the center of trade for the Arabian Peninsula. In document A of the Why Islam Spread So Quickly reading it states, “...Mecca was prosperous and important.