Islamic Civilization

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What is civilization? Civilization is started and developed when a group of people are motivated by some ideas and beliefs, trust one another and willing to cooperate with each other in establishing a state and a government. Civilization undergoes periods of rise, decline and fall, therefore, different types of civilizations could be seen over a period of time. Islamic Civilization Islamic civilization was founded by Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) and the first Islamic state was established in 622. This period is also called the Islamic Golden Age. The Muslims were later ruled by caliphs after the death of Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ). The caliphs were very influential as they had great spiritual and political authority. Islam spread quickly in the Middle East and beyond. Through the introduction of common tax system, laws and coinage, Islam was able to unite the new conquered lands. The Islamic empire was ruled by the Umayyads from 661, with its base at Damascus, in Syria. The Abbasids seized power in 750 and the caliphs were based at Baghdad. During the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun ar-Rashid, from 786 to 809, Baghdad was acknowledged as the House of Wisdom. Scholars from various parts of the world translate and gathered all knowledge into Arabic language. During this period, Baghdad, Cairo and Cordoba became the centres for education, science, philosophy and medicine. In 711, Islam conquered southern Spain and changed its name to Al Andalus, which
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