It also increases lymphocyte production and T- and Bcell activity (Fuller et al., 1992; Grob et al., 1996; Maxwell et al., 1995; Noonan et al., 1996). By modulating immune defense, beta-carotene might have an impact on carcinogenesis. In addition, beta-carotene may modulate skin carcinogenesis by a reduction of lipid peroxidation in human skin, either as a free radical scavenger or as specific lipoxygenase inhibitor. The substrates of lipoxygenasesare linoleic acid and arachidonic acid; the reaction produces leukotrienes, lipoxins, and physiologically active oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid is one of the major components of membrane phospholipids of living cells that are damaged by reactive oxygen species, leading to pathological events and aging processes.
The immune system, which fights off infections and other harmful material in the body, mistakenly destroys beta cells in the pancreas. These beta cells are known as islet tissue which assist in producing insulin in the body. The exact reason for why the immune system damages these
COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme are two different forms of cyclo-oxygenase. The difference is that COX-1 enzyme did not produce inflammatory prostaglandins but protecting the lining in the gastrointestinal tract and has blood clotting and renal function while COX-2 enzyme produces prostaglandins causing the symptoms and signs associated with inflammation. The classic one of NSAIDs, for example, ibuprofen blocks the action of both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme, and that is why the side effects, for example, stomach irritation, are easily occur. In contrast, Celecoxib, a new generation of NSAIDS, only stop the action of COX-2 enzyme, the enzyme in which it produces inflammatory prostaglandis by COX-2 inhibitor. Celecoxib, therefore, could keep the function of reliving pain and inflammation, and the advantage is to cause smaller side effects on the stomach and intestines compared to traditional
ABSTRACT: Pantoprazole sodium is an antiulcer drug. This compound inhibits gastric acid formation and thereby it is very efficient for the treatment of gastric and duodenum ulcers. But pantoprazole sodium is acid labile drug that will degrade in acidic environment of stomach resulting in therapeutic inefficacy. Hence it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage forms (single unit or multiple units) by using different enteric polymers The present study was an attempt to formulate and evaluate enteric coated tablets for pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate. Different core tablets were prepared using different superdisintegrants (Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium,
Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) leads to symptoms of the disease. How this loss occurs is not known, but generation of ROS are considered important mediators. Oxidation of dopamine by enzymes leads to the formation of H2O2, which is usually inactivated in a reaction involving glutathione, but can react with Fe2+ and form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. In PD, GSH levels have been reported to be decreased in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the severity of the disease correlates with GSH loss. How this oxidative stress occurs is not well understood, as GSH synthase levels have been shown to be normal in the substantia nigra.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole works by inhibiting the microbial synthesis of folic acid (Church, Fitzgerald, Walker, Gibb, & Prendergast, 2015). Folic acid is an important cofactor in the production of thymide and purines (Church et al., 2015). Separately, sulfamethoxazole works to inhibit the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, whereas trimethoprim inhibits tetrahydrofolic acid production (Church et al.,
Gram-negative bacteria contain a layer of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) When the bacteria enters the body, the LPS triggers the body’s immune response. The body recognises a cytokine reaction from the bacteria which is toxic to the body and responds by inflaming the tissues and blood vessels. The certain cells used against the bacteria Bordetella Pertussis include innate and specific defenses, but the defensive antigens have not been exclusively identified. Explain how the disease can be treated. Pertussis is generally treated with antibiotics and it is vital to use the antibiotics early on in the infection or it will have little to no effect.
Cancer prevention Fennel is loaded with its own share of antioxidants and phytonutrients. Studies show that the Fennel seed extract can inhibit growth of tumor. It’s probably because of its flavonoid and alkaloid concentration. These chemicals present in fennel can fight the free radicals roaming in our blood, which are supposedly responsible cancer. 5.
influenzae and some enterobacteria like E coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. These bacteria do not produce β-lactamase Ceftazidime is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Some of these third-generation cephalosporin drugs have poor activity against gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Ceftibuten and cefixime only have slight activity against S. aureus, so if it is used for infections in the skin and soft-tissues, it should be limited to uncomplicated streptococcal infections. The following cephalosporins in this class are used for many clinical conditions: Oral medications Cefixime
It can be defined as a group of organic chemicals and have been used to hinder the process of oxidative degradation of food products, fats and oils and polymers. Antioxidant can be defined as forms of molecules that help to maintain the body’s chemical reactions. They assist in preventing excessive activity of free radical molecules. Free radicals are molecules that are very reactive;