Ito 540 Unit 3

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Name: Payal Desai CWID: A20362549

Answer 1: White noise is the static noise that is heard in the background. Some amount of it is always present but too much of white noise does not enable a clear conversation because we lose the signal.

Answer 2: Impulsive noise is the one which occurs discretely. Unlike white noise, it is not continuous and hence becomes difficult to interpret because it occurs at random moments. This also makes it more disruptive.

Answer 3: Crosstalks can occur when one signal during transmission mixes with some other signal and pick that up thereby disrupting the original message.

Answer 4: When a signal moves through any medium, at the end of the medium it has a tendency
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Answer 7: Shielding will reduce the chances of error because proper shielding will ensure that electromagnetic interference is eliminated.

Answer 8: The difference between even parity and odd parity is that with even parity you include an equality bit such that even number of ones is kept up and when performing odd parity you include an equality bit to such an extent that an odd number of ones is kept up.

Answer 9: The ratio of check bits to data bits for simple parity is 1:7.

Answer 10: The ratio of check bits to data bits for longitudinal parity is n+8:7n where n is the number of characters transmitted in a block.

Answer 11: Simple parity bit cannot detect errors in even numbers in one character. Its drawback is that it can only detect odd number of errors in bits per character.

Answer 12: Longitudinal parity will not detect errors which shows even number of bits in the same columns.

Answer 13: In arithmetic sum the ASCII values of the characters are added. These characters are the ones which comprise of the message to be
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Answer 16: Frame relay would automatically assume that fiber-optics will be used and there will be no errors. It uses the do nothing form of error control.

Answer 17: One packet can be sent using Stop-and-wait protocol at one time.

Answer 18: The ACK in Stop-and-wait protocol acknowledges that there have been no errors during transmission of data.

Answer 19: NAK functions opposite to how ACK functions and reacts when there is an error during transmission.

Answer 20: Timeout specifically means that both the users, the sender and the receiver have waited idly for a certain amount of time and have still not gotten any response.

Answer 21: In earlier times, the window sizes were small due to two reasons:
• The memory was very expensive
• The sender did not want to overwhelm the receiver with too much data and hence the reduced size.

Answer 22: There are two options of either counting the data or the bytes while numbering the sequences of data.

Answer 23: Error correction is option when the transmitted data contains redundant information, there are huge delays in transmitting the data or there is special need for
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