A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is an equation which correlates measurable or calculable physical or molecular properties to some specific biological activity. Once this relationship has been determined, it is possible to predict the biological activity of related drug candidates before they are put through expensive and time-consuming biological testing. The electronic effects of a substituent have an effect on the ionisation or polarity of a drug. This in turn may affect how easily a drug can pass through
The solution homogeneity expelled, by centrifugation for 10 min. The sample was centrifuged and separated into two layers, and took the top of the sample is injected for HPLC (11,12). Measured concentration in total lipid: The total fats balanced concentration of the pesticide getting by dividing the measured pesticide residue concentration in the overalll tissue sample by the decimal fraction of the sample that consisted of ether-extractable lipid. The total lipid content of each specimen was estimated from its total cholesterol & triglycerides levels by using a summation method. Analytical results for organochlorine pesticides were reported on a lipid-adjusted basis (nanograms per gram or parts per billion) (14).
5.2.3 Incorporation of Emulsion into Gel base For preparation of emulgel, the obtained emulsion was mixed with gel in 1:1 ratio with gentle stirring. During mixing of emulgel, glutaraaldehyde was mixed to obtain the emulgel (Figure 5.1). Fig 5.1: Flow chart for preparation of Emulgel 5.3 OPTIMIZATION OF AZATHIOPRINE LOADED EMULGEL Various process variables like gelling agent concentration, oil and emulsifier concentration which could affect the preparation and properties of emulgel were identified and studied. 5.3.1 Effect of varying Gelling Agent concentration Emulgel was prepared using varying concentration of gelling agent via 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 gm while keeping other variables constant by method reported in section. The effect of varying gelling agent concentration on viscosity and drug content are reported in Table 5.1 and shown in Figure 5.2 and 5.3 respectively.
The final volume was recorded. A pH probe connected through Microlab was calibrated using buffer solutions of pH 4.00, 7.00, and 10.00. The calibrated pH probe was used in order to measure the pH of the titrated solution of the unknown weak acid. These same steps were repeated except 2 mL of the strong base were titrated into the weak acid solution instead of 4 mL. This process was repeated 10 times.
The method was developed on a Novapak C18 (250×4.6mm, 5µ particle size) column using phosphate buffer (pH7.4) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40, v/v as a mobile phase which was pumped at flow rate of 1.0m/min and detection was done at 302nm.the retention time of drug was found to be 7.71min.A prominence isocratic HPLC system (HPLC YL9000 series) with autochro 3000 software an uv detector. A 20 µl hamitton injection syringe was used for sample injection. Preparation of standard and stock solutions 40 mg of Omeprazole was weighed and transferred to 100ml volumetric flask containing 30 ml of 0.1NNaoH. The drug was allowed to dissolved and volume was made up to 100ml with 0.1 Noah. The above solution was diluted with mobile pause to obtain a working standard solution of 40 µg/ml.
To this, 80ml of cold water and 15ml of 2M HCl was added to the conical flask. Afterwards, 0.1ml of ferroin solution (as an indicator) was added. Next, titration was performed. The contents in the conical flask was titrated with 0.1M ammonia cerium (IV) sulphate until a yellow solution was produced. The experiment was then repeated without sample B (only the H2SO4 and water in the proportion 3:7, 6ml acid 14ml
The total serum protein concentration (C) was calculated as follows: C (mg/dl) = A sample × concentration of the standard A standard. 22.214.171.124 Albumin Serum albumin was determined using Bromocresol Green (BCG) method (Peter et al 1982). Measurement of serum albumin is based on its quantitative binding to the indicator 5, 5-dicromo-o-cresolsulphonaphthaline (bromocresol green, BCG). Non-haemoloysed serum was mixed with a buffered BCG reagent and incubated at 20-25oC for 5minutes. The absorbance of the sample and that of the standard were measured against the reagent blank at a wavelength of 630nm and albumin was calculated as follows: g/l = Δ A sample / Δ A standard × standard concentration (6%) (Where A = absorbance).
Antibiotics tested included: gentamicin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, doxycycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, linezolid and mupirocin. 2.3.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were submitted to the Etest () to determine the sensitivity to vancomycin. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the quality control in each set of tests. Isolates showing inhibition zones of 30 μg cefoxitin (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) disk, and that were positive for mecA gene by PCR, were characterized as MRSA.
They function by binding to the enzyme-substrate complex and are used to make drugs. There are reversible and irreversible inhibitors. The three types of reversible inhibitors include competitive, noncompetitive and uncompetitive. The type of inhibitor can be identified by the reaction Vmax, Km and Ki. In this experiment, the inhibitor used was 75 mM phenylalanine.
evaluated Pluronic F127 gels, which contained either insulin or insulin-PLGA nanoparticles with conclusion, that these formulations could be used as a controlled delivery system. Likewise, poloxamer gels were tested for intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of human growth hormone or with the aim to develop a long acting single dose injection of