It can be argued that Peter the Great had a lot to pick up after, especially following Ivan IV’s reign, the Time of Troubles, false Tsardom, and the great Raskol. However, Peter the Great creatively used all of these disadvantages to his own advantage. Rather than “tearing apart” society, Peter the Great reoriented Russian society by means of merit and collective productive contribution to society. Although it can be disputed “whether Peter the Great was a “revolutionary” tsar, Peter’s immense impact on Russia’s service system is simply undeniable” (Kaiser and Marker 226). It was perhaps Peter’s different upbringing that allowed him to formulate such distinguishable values that the country ran on during his reign.
When examining history, there are many “lenses” through which one can view events that have made significant impacts in the field of international relations. During an address to the Carnegie Council on his book, How War Ends, Gideon Rose makes a bold claim that although the United States has been militarily successful in most of the conflicts in the past century, poor planning and incomplete identification of political goals and agendas by political leaders have lead to “botched” efforts in these endeavors and have ultimately led to prolonged conflicts and presence in foreign countries. Although Rose mentions many examples, his focus was on the war in Iraq and the regime change that occurred there due to US military intervention. While, listening
Russia in World War I has become a great debate on how bad they were defeated and what they truly contributed to the war. Many focus on Russia’s few victories and its tremendous defeats rather than what they did for their allies. Russia is known for being occupied by Germans as well as being constantly defeated by them in World War I: however, they found themselves successful defeating the Austria-Hungary. Russia continuously were having hardships due to food shortages, loss of territory, and enormous amount of deaths. However, Russia was not one of the lucky ones during these times yet they managed to bring some good and help to their allies and people.
Joseph Stalin was an instrumental figure in shaping the Russia that we know and see today. He created many new policies and changed the way many people lived their lives. Even so, there are many things that Stalin was responsible for that did not earn him quite the same amount of approval and admiration. With this in mind, we can look beyond Stalin’s death towards the rise of the Khrushchev party and a new type of leadership in the Soviet Union. It was at this time that people began to question the type of leader that Stalin was and call out some of the “mistakes” that he was responsible for during his reign (the same “mistakes” that did not earn him the admiration he desired), in part because they were now granted the liberty to do so.
The defeat of the Germans by the Soviet forces was a major turning point in World War Two. Launching Operation Barbarossa is believed to be Hitler’s biggest mistake, since it placed Germany in a position where they would have to fight a two front war. Hitler had invested tremendous amounts of energy into a battle that could not be fought. He had failed to account for the conditions of the Russian winter that his troops would have to fight in, and the difficulties this would place for his operation. Hitler had many successes in acquiring land prior to this military operation against the Soviets, and upon losing this battle it resulted in a downward spiral of losses for the Germans.
Both having a sporty background of being physical, they were involved in several wars and recognized similarly. Peter the Great was recognized by reorganizing his army and created the first Russian Navy. Louis XIV was revengeful, he attacked people who were disobedient such as nobles in exile while Peter the Great wanted to centralize power and strengthen his military such as expanded Russian borders. Peter also demanded money from mercantilist policy because of his new military. But like Peter, Louis XIV who had a semi feudal society, he wanted a mercantile nation to create an efficient army.
Through his well-known zest and ambition, he did his best to resolve most of them, and made considerable steps in the direction of prosperity and positive reform. However, his actions did not always have the intended effect and the outcome he envisioned. As his own rule shows, and later during the rule of Catherine the Great, the greatest effect of his reforms was that Russian society found itself splintered in classes that lacked communication skills and literacy, and even in the context of the same class, disconnects arose and some disagreements were never resolved (Anderson, “Peter the Great”). I agree with the quote “I have conquered an empire but I have not been able to conquer myself.” He is saying that he has been victorious over someone else in battle, but is not able to control his own self. For example, he may have even been discontented with himself and hasn 't been able to overcome that sensation, or perhaps he had an interpersonal conflict we do not know of.
Soon, all the unforeseen circumstances such as the early winter and slow advances began to irritate him as he have been victorious in so many situations already. As a result, the German forces were not only affected by the physical conditions, they also began to crumble from the inside as well. According to Source F, the Axis powers who were alliances with Hitler, were unable to negotiate for reinforcements from them, whereas the Soviets received their reinforcements from the East, past Moscow, where the Germans have not conquered yet. As the city of Moscow is at the heart of the city and is considered to be an important city to the Germans, many German generals blamed Hitler for putting the capture of economic resources in the South as a priority over the taking over of Moscow as shown in Source B. Also according to Source B, Hitler later blamed Mussolini from Italy for forcing him to send forces to the Mediterranean instead of starting Operation Barbarossa in May, which would have prevented the German forces from meeting the unfavourable weather conditions.
There was a resurgence of The Corpos Iuris Civilis, an old set of Eastern Empire books about law, which also caused the scholasticism of law, meaning it became a disciplined field of study. It emphasized the idea of a central leader, and from here the development of a centralized government came about again, bringing with it more efficient trade, large cities, and a powerful military through tax
After his coronation at the age of sixteen, he began reforming, modernizing and centralizing Russia. The Tsar, a killer and a reformist, was a man with a complex personality that exhibited both intelligence and insanity. Ivan the Terrible was admired for his many successes, but feared because of his mental instability and violent outbursts, making the Russian term ‘groznyi’ applicable to him in both of its two meanings, “extremely and distressingly bad” and also “awesomely mighty and fearful