The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written in 1905 by the German sociologist, economist and politician Max Weber. It is considered as one of the most controversial works of modern social science, and it is a book that provokes critical debates. The book was first published as a two-part article in 1904-05, in the Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik of which Weber was one of the editors. The book is translated into English by Talcott Parsons, with an introduction by Anthony Giddens. Weber considered himself as a social reformer, who sought to understand how change comes about, and specifically with the transitions to capitalism and modernity.
(Fagan, 1995). Adorno as a result became one of the most important continental philosophers of the 20th century. He observed that people must conform to an outside world of which they have no control over. Overall it is clear that Adorno has a lot to say about the social world
Although structuralism itself struggled to pick up momentum, some schools developed in opposition to structuralism; one such school is Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychologists were fundamentally against minimizing mental processes into individual parts (Hergenhan, 2017). They believed in natural observation of phenomena in their complete form (Hergenhan, 2017). Unlike structuralists, Gestalt psychologists believe the whole is more than the sum of parts (Hergenhan, 2017). The gestalt school believed that consciousness was far more complex than the structuralist associative framework.
This essay will respectively explain about the religion and belief system which significally influenced by the sociologist ideas. The sociologist that invovle in this theory of religion consist of Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber that was one of the famous sociologist with their power theory at that time. Other than that, I will also explain about their similarities and differences among their theories about religion and belief system. All of us know that these sociologist was greatly interested to make their own theory especially on religion and belief system. They each comes out their ideas about religion in many different ways of perspective, method, languange, and resulting theory.
The works of German sociologist Max Weber, are some of the most significant, controversial and influential works of the twentieth century. His most noted piece of work was on the thesis of the “Protestant ethic”, with the ideas of Protestantism, capitalism and bureaucracy. For Weber, rationality was the lead agent in the solid transformation of society from traditional to modern. He argued that modernity is about the unleashing of this dynamic of rationality; characterised by efficiency, calculability and accountability (McLennan, Manus and Spoonley, 2010). The attempt to control nature, individuals and society by calculating social life is seen in the ideas of Protestantism.
By developing his rather ambiguous critique of Wittgenstein into the theory of communicative action Habermas laid foundation for further political conceptualization of his account. As it was asserted in the end of the second part, this theory forms a core of the deliberative model of democracy. However, there is a room to criticize these Habermas's elaborations through Wittgenstein himself. Such a critical analysis was carried out by Chantal Mouffe. Mouffe uses Wittgenstein to pinpoint the drawbacks of Habermasian investigations and to work out her own concept of democratic society that incorporates some Wittgenstein's insights that were described in the first chapter.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) commonly known as the founder of modern sociology was a functionalist. He insisted a lot on making Sociology as a recognised subject in university. He was sure that with the introduction of this subject, France which was his homeland would be capable of fighting the moral crisis (loss of morality) spreading among all the country. All this moral crisis was leading to threat to social solidarity and stability. Durkheim's theory regarding social facts particularly show the difference between Sociology with any relatively similiar subject such as Psychology or Philosophy.
The most outstanding theorist of systems in sociology — Niklas Luman. He has developed sociological approach which unites elements of a structural functionalism of T. Parsons with the general theory of systems and has attracted concepts of biology and cybernetics. Luman considers that the system is always less difficult, than her external environment. Therefore systems develop new subsystems and establish between them various ratios to interact with the environment. Systems have to reduce complexity, otherwise they aren 't capable to function.