This paper focuses on the subaltern studies.Though ‘Subaltern other’ is theoretical specific, it is also a social, cultural and political construct. It derives its force from the colonial, post-colonial and from the post-modern studies. The study dives deep into The God of Small Things, a modern Indian classic, by Arundhati Roy who examines the nature of the sub-alternization and its impact on the individual and on the society as well. Roy’s fiction is primarily a portrayal of political malpractices, personal relationship, caste and the class conflicts. The traumatic experiences of the family feuds, shattered faith, love, marriage, conjugal discord and sex are also analysed.
Title: A critical study: How Edward Said explicated the predicament of Exile through the works of 20th century novelists. Introduction: Postcolonial theory is the body of theoretical work, which is a study of colonial discourse and is usually called ‘postcolonial criticism’. It has pointed out the historical effect of colonialism and criticizing their persistence in contemporary culture, politics, philosophy and literature. So the attempting to discuss the theory of the postcolonial throughout critique various forms of imperialism and open a space for such critique because the theorists have struggled to accept the resistant power of the individual postcolonial means. However, the greater significance of postcolonial theory has been considered of the epistemological implications of the theme “Exile”.
Discourse on colonialism generally results in the different opinions of the colonizer and the colonized. The upshot of such discourse shows that colonialism has divergent interpretations. For the colonizer, it is ‘a civilizing mission’; to the colonized, it is exploitation. Such concept is better understood when both the views are studied with an objective approach. Things Fall Apart is a perfect novel to study colonialism as it deals with the perspectives of the colonizer and the colonized.
Heart of Darkness is an important example of modernist novel in English literature. It is full of symbols. A symbol is used to imply a hidden meaning behind the surface. When we look at symbols, we can understand the meaning attached to them. Through the story, places, and characters mentioned in the novel, Joseph Conrad wants to show the truth of colonialism and its effect on both white and black people.
Hard Times is a Novel in which focused on the influence of economic and social condition of the Victorian era by determining particular events and shaping characters. In addition to it embodied an implicit thesis of political reform. In the book culture and society by Raymond Williams (1983) in which studied the social novels of Victorian age , he described Hard Times as a creative examination of Industrialism dominant philosophy. Dickens used fiction as a way for his perpetual fascination with the darker and evil side of human nature. Charles Dickens’s treatment of crime was far more than an authorial device; it was a central point for his deep concern with social problems that played and performed an important role in his attempts
He emphasises that colonized people are undergoing a psychological transformation, which he called ‘two-dimension’. This self division is the result of colonialism and subjugation by the colonizer. He argues that the black man and woman have already been translated not only as colonial subjects in the regime of French imperialism, but also internally, psychologically; their desires have been changed in to
The purpose of writing this paper is to explore how caste hierarchy and oppression has been depicted in the works of Premchand and to critically analyse whether his two stories Kafan and Sadgati fall within the genre of ‘Dalit literature’. The paper deals extensively with the Dalit psyche and also the politics revolving around the concepts of purity and untouchability through the Dalit body. The significance of the paper lies in the fact that it enables one to analyse the representation of Dalits in literature by including the criticism of various writers against Premchand and decide for oneself how appropriate and extensive that representation has been. Keywords: Dalit, death, hierarchy, women, representation, revolution Premchand (1880-1936) was writing during the first half of the twentieth century when India was facing colonialism, imperialism and National Liberation Movement. He wrote on a variety of subjects touching almost each and
It is based upon imposition of rules and this form is considered as illegitimate. Michael Foucaults developed what he called the capillary model of power. This model is developed to understand the relations of power by looking at struggle and resistance. According to him there are numbers of important struggles that independent of class relation such as gender, sexuality, madness, criminal, medicine and many more. In his study he found out that people are becoming subjects for investigation for new sciences.
It is also about the way in which fiction, in its broadest sense, affects the formation of identity: how people create narratives in order to understand their place in the world. In doing so, it seeks to undermine some of the grand narratives by which we have come to understand and interpret the late-twentieth and early twenty-first-century
This paper highlights the problematic relationship between the coloniser and the colonised in a colonial context as manifested in Forster 's novel, A Passage to India. It also reveals the stereotypes with which Orientals are depicted and the constant process of 'formatting ' or brainwashing to which newcomers are subjected, in order to generate colonisers who are all the same. Further, it deals with the image of the land as being hostile to the colonisers, fighting them and intensifying their feelings of alienation and exile. The article particularly applies Albert Memmi 's theories in his book The Colonizer and The Colonized, as well as those of other cultural philosophers. Hopefully, this paper would generate further readings into Forster 's novels, especially A Passage to India, that depict the problematic issues of identity formation, race relations and complexities of colonial discourse in hybrid contexts.