There are many theories of emotion: i. James-Lange theory (1890) [cited in Taylor, 1999]: Subjective emotional responses are the result of physiological changes within human bodies. The brain perceives an event and, in turn, sends messages down its neural circuit to other areas of the brain. This action ultimately produces motor, autonomic and endocrine responses. These responses elicit an emotional response, which in turn, is perceived by the brain. Therefore, it is a cyclical process.
The adrenal medulla, which is in the autonomic nervous system, will then secrete, once action potential is reached, epinephrine (Adrenaline) into the blood. Epinephrine brings its effects to target receptors, which will in turn cause changes in the body. Adrenaline leads the Sympathetic Nervous System to become more prominent and inhibit the action of the Parasympathetic system in the body. Thus, the body focuses less on housekeeping and more on fighting or fleeing. It increases the amount of oxygen the lungs intake and the level of blood glucose.
He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory". Social cognitive theory is a crust of the psychosocial, cognitive and behavior processing. This theory clearly asserts the humanistic elements such as individuality, contemplative self-awareness and cogitative reaction.
Both the anatomy and the biochemistry play a significant role. Anatomically, several parts of the brain can be responsible for personality stimulation. For example the frontal cortex, responsible for judgement and self-control, serves as a major determinant of personality development. In the case of Tom Cruise, it can be readily assumed that his frontal cortex is overstimulated. His need or desire to be the center of attention as seen in his “declaration” of love for Katie Holmes explicitly illustrates the frontal cortex’s overindulgence in the role of self enhancement.
Sigmund Freud 's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Personality refers to individual differences in thinking, feeling and behaving patterns (American Psychological Association, 2016). To explain these differences, Sigmund Freud introduced the Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. According to Freud, personality develops from the interaction between Structural Modal agencies: id, ego and superego (Magnavita, 2002). Interaction of agencies depends on ego strength, which refers to ego’s ability in effectively mediating between the id, superego and reality (Akhtar, 2009). High ego strength forms healthy personalities whilst low ego strength shapes maladaptive personalities.
From the synaptic cleft, the ACh binds to the receptors located on the muscle fiber’s plasma membrane. After the ACh has found its way to the receptors and is bound to them, the muscle fibers become stimulated. The stimulated muscle fibers result in an impulse being generated. This impulse travels down the membrane until it reaches the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for regulating the Ca2+ ion concentration.
Sympathetic nervous system is the one that will be engaged. This is because; sympathetic nervous system normally functions to produce reflex adjustments and localized adjustments of the cardiovascular system. Under conditions of stress, activation of the entire sympathetic nervous system occurs producing the fight-or-flight response. What characterizes this response is an increase in heart rate, epinephrine release from the adrenal gland in large quantities, vasodilation of the skeletal muscle, cardiac output increase, vasoconstriction of cutaneous and gastrointestinal, dilation of pupillary piloerection and bronchial dilation. Preparing the individual for imminent danger is the overall effect (Bechir 2010).
While drive-reduction theory focuses primarily on biological needs as motivators, the arousal theory examines the influence of the neurotransmitter dopamine as a motivator in the body. The Arousal theory proposes that motivation is strongly linked to biological factors that control reward sensitivity and goal-driven behavior. The reward system in the human body spurs physiological arousal, which motivates individuals to engage in whatever behavior is necessary to relieve their arousal. Research shows that there tends to be an optimal level of arousal for peak performance; when arousal is very high or very low, performance tends to suffer. Traits like impulsivity and sensation-seeking predispose people to engage in activities that they find
So people who are in a deep conversation will likely have the same emotions, and if asked to do something during that conversation would have the same reaction as the other person they are engaged with. If it was a conversation driven with flirty intention oxytocin is released and “Oxytocin has long been known to play a key role in social behavior”(114 Fredrickson). So going back to the chemical imbalances along with the brain coupling it is undeniable why emotions play a huge role in our decision making. Emotions let us know where our mental health is at the time of the decision and to see if we are stable enough to go along with that decision. Emotions are indicators to let us know if we are ready to move on or if we need to linger for longer to develop enough to move on.
As a result, people experience emotions based on how one interprets the arousal (Weiten, 2013). Furthermore, Schachter agreed with the James-Lange theory that physiological arousal occurs first followed by the interpretation of that arousal (Weiten, 2013). On the other hand, Schachter also agreed with the Cannon-Bard theory that varying emotions yield patterns of autonomic arousal that are largely not distinguishable (Weiten, 2013). Thus, the Schachter’s two-factor theory built on James-Lange theory by adding the factor of interpretation of the arousal, which is also known as appraisal and labelling (Weiten, 2013). For instance, I am walking back home at night alone.