Functionalist perspective define the emotion of fear in terms of being caused by particular patterns of threat-related stimuli and in turn causing distinctive sample of adaptive behaviors to prevent or cope with that danger. Robert C. Bolles (1970) developed the theory ‘Species-Specific Defence Reaction (SSDR). The theory propunded that there are three forms of SSDr’S:flight,fight (pseudo-aggression) or freeze. According to Bolles (1970) intrinsic information from within, such as increased heart rate is more crucial than the external stimuli - the environment.Threat is what elicits fear. In line with functional perspective, it's the response to the hazard itself (i.e unconditioned stimulus: UCS) that directly affects survival.
And in the systematic way the targets of endocrine glands are selected and influenced as a result the changes are brought that are consistent with conditions. Hormones have ability to affect wide range of processes in body such as development, growth, reproduction, metabolic rate, sexual rhythm and so. It is fact that without functioning of endocrine system the whole body will be affected because of its integrative nature in the body (J.N,
In order to compare and contrast these theories of emotion it is helpful to first explain them in terms of the interactions between their components: an emotion-arousing stimulus, a response of physiological arousal, a response of cognitive appraisal, and the subjective experience of emotion. According to the James-Lange theory, initially proposed by James and around the same time also by Lange, the stimulus leads to the arousal that leads to the emotion. The sound of a gunshot, for example, leads to the physiological responses like rapid heart rate and trembling that lead to the subjective experience of fear. On the other hand, according to the Cannon-Bard theory, proposed first by Cannon and later extended by Bard, the stimulus leads to both the arousal and the emotion. The sound of a gun shot, for example, leads both to the physiological responses like rapid heart rate and trembling and to the subjective experience of fear.The two most well-known cognitive theories are the two-factor and the cognitive-mediational theories of emotion.
Stress affects how you feel, think, and behave as well as how your body works. In order to better understand stress, it is important that we first define what stress is scientifically. Stress causes a surge of hormones in your body. When you are stressed your body reacts by stimulating the body to produce hormones that include adrenaline and cortisol. Essentially, these hormones help you to deal with any
William James believed that the involvement of the body in important for having emotions. In other words, emotions are not only an outcome but rather they are differentiated by bodily changes. The cognitive perspective which is the most popular has a combination of both the evolutionary perspective and the bodily-feedback perspective. The cognitive perspective states that in order to understand emotion a person should understand what decisions lead to that emotion. This perspective holds the meaning a person attaches to an event which is responsible for that specific emotion rather than the event itself (Desmet,
The purpose of this study is to examine extraversion and introversion biologically. Specifically, this paper will examine Eysenck’s arousal theory and will present evidences that support the proposed relationship between ARAS and extraversion and introversion. Jung also introduced one of the first personality questionnaires that aim to determine whether a person is an extravert or an introvert. After Jung, there had been a lot of other psychologists who attempted to explain and understand introversion and extraversion. Among the most popular of these studies are the ones by Raymond Cattell, and Myers and Briggs.
When oxidative stress increases, peroxidase functions as first line of defense against reactive oxygen species (Boeuf et al., 2000). The Catla catla commonly called thaila, is an important major carp due to its easily availability, higher growth rate, consumer preference and its compatibility with other major carps (FAO, 2005). In the field of ecotoxicology, the use of oxidative stress biomarkers are gaining importance as they could provide an early warning to the potentially hazardous substances in the aquatic environments. Therefore, during present
Extraversion is one of the fundamental dimension of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992a; Digman, 1990; Eysenck & Himmelweit, 1947; Goldberg, 1990; Norman, 1963), it is used to explain the wide variety of behaviours which is the main concern of personality (Funder, 2001). Extraversion is relative to view the world more in a positive way and give judgements to events more in positive way (Uziel, 2006). There are many factors that affect the facets of extraversion. The hereditary genes of the individuals can affect their personality of being extravert, their brain function and structure is also a factor. Another one is the birth-order of the individual .This birth-order theory was proposed by Sulloway (1996) in his book Born to Rebel where he used his five mechanism that affects birth-order.