James M. Powell's Theory Of Papacy

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The author, James M. Powell instills in the reader the concept that during the Fifth Crusade the role of the papacy changed. Frederick II and Louis IX challenged papal authority. At age twenty-one Frederick II took the Cross. However, in order to reconcile differences between powerful German Dukes and bishops and to restore order in Sicily Frederick delayed his departure. Pope Innocent III announced that the next crusade would depart in 1217. Frederick had taken the cross in 1215 providing him enough time to get his political and military affairs in order. However, political and personal events that delayed his departure, which put him at odds with the Pope Honorius III who ascended to the papacy after Innocent’s death. Because of continuous…show more content…
He married Isabella of Brienne heiress to the throne of Jerusalem, thus making him King of Jerusalem. In 1227, circumstance once again prohibited Frederick’s departure. As promised, Pope Gregory IX excommunicated Frederick. The excommunication became a question of papal authority and apostolic legation granted by Pope Urban II to Count Roger of Sicily. The question was who is going to control Sicily, Frederick, or the Pope. Frederick eventually embarked on his crusade and during the journey, his wife died, he also successfully negotiated a treaty with al-Kamil regaining the city of Jerusalem. Unfortunately, Frederick was now involved in another unpleasant political situation, this time in the Near East. Frederick left Jerusalem to resolve affairs in his Europe. Frederick’s crusade had a lasting effect as it showed a weakness in papal authority and a shift away from papal leadership towards secular ruler’s control. The Pope was aware of Louis IX loyalty to Frederick. However, the Gregory IX turned his intention inward towards Italy, while Louis IX prepared for his military campaign, which unfortunately ended disaster. The Church sought out heretics and focused on smashing the rise of secular power especially in

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