To begin with, a discourse community is a group people having the same issues and needs address with. Author John Swales also have idea. He says. “A discourse community has a broadly agreed set of common public goals. These public goals may be formally inscribed in documents (as is often the case with associations and clubs), or they may be more tacit.”
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in discourse communities. According to James Porter, "a discourse community is a group of people bound by a common interest who communicate through channels and discourse is regulated (Couzelis, Isip, Adkins 12 and Porter 38-39). John Swales, however, states that a community can only be a true discourse community if they meet six requirements: they have to share clearly stated goals; they have to use a mechanism of communication; they offer feedback and information; utilize one or more genres of text, the group uses specific lexis; and they have old members with new ones (Couzelis, Isip, Adkins 12 and Swales 471-473). Under these guidelines, Mike Rose 's mother Rosie is in a discourse community because
Discourse communities are a way of the world, everything and every person belongs to some sort of discourse community. The many forms of discourse communities are made up of anything from churches, to the part of the world that a person is from. America is a great example of a discourse community and how they work, for example Americans are classified from the view of everyone else in the world as Americans, however American is such a vague and non-descriptive term; It could literally describe almost anybody. In America we have millions of different people, varying religions, languages from all around the world, and many different social and economical classes. To describe America in one word is impossible and almost always incorrect.
A discourse community is a group of people that share a set of values and goals. Members of a discourse community have their own way of communicating within the group and with the public. Although the communities may differ in subject matter and appearance, they do share varying levels of similarities. The three-discourse communities that we will be focusing on are: art, research biology and finance: specifically, the financial service sector. Furthermore, we will be comparing the three-discourse communities on: similarities among all the groups, similarities between each group and the differences among all three.
In the article "The Concept of a Discourse Community" by John Swales (1990). He aimed to define the meaning of a discourse community; then he carefully deconstructs discourse community into six fundamental attributes that are important for recognizing a discourse community. Swales’ definition of a discourse community is a group that has objectives or purposes, and utilize communication to accomplish those objectives. He states that a discourse community is presented as a more practical and purposeful gathering than speech fraternity or speech group. The six essential characteristics that Swales (1990) belief to be the core of a discourse community are its goals, intercommunication, participation, genres, Lexis, and expertise.
Brandt in one of her books, “Sponsor of Literacy,” verify the method for changing of the literacy learning from 1895 and 1985. She changes the concept that people do not have ability to become literate by themselves. For Brandt, sponsors not only assist people but also take some advantage from them. Brandt firstly states that before mid-nineteenth printer apprentices used to be well paid until the invention of print industry. At this time, printer apprentices were obligated to have reading and writing skills to be successful in their area.
Discourse does not have a general definition , but Foucault ( as cited by Mills, 2004) have stated that the most effective ways of think of discourse is" practices that systematically creates the object which they speak" (p. 61). In other words, what we say and think are two different things. Discourse is also an idea that language is planned according to different areas of social life, and a way of talking about and understanding the world (Jorgensen & Phillips, 2002). Discourses are made up of practices, forms and objects (Mill, 2004). It depends on the understanding that there are much more meanings when people communicate than simply just transferring information (University H., 2008).
Neil Postman and Wendell Berry state that twentieth-century Americans are losing literacy and the ability to read and write, which weakens our ability to think for ourselves. Reading, writing, and thinking are connected through everyday life and as English speakers, it is our responsibility to preserve and correctly exercise the truth and validity of the English language. With the dependency on technology, relaxed educational standards, and even potential government control, we become stripped of our independence of thinking. With no free will to think, we are vulnerable to dominance and corruption, inability to argue complexly, oversimplification, and conformity. Neil Postman sets the scene of his essay, The Typographic Mind, by opening with an explanation of the famous Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas debate.
Frederick Douglass was an American slave who wrote The Narrative of Frederick Douglass in1845, he demonstrated that literacy and being free was linked. He also shows that literacy was not permitted to African slaves. In addition, Douglass shows how he was introduced to the literacy by his mistress Sophia Auld. But for him to keep learning how to read and write it was going to be a challenge since Sophia’s husband master Hugh Auld rejected the idea that she continues giving him lessons. Master Auld warns his wife “If you give a nigger an inch, he will take an ell.”
1) The two types of Discourses, “saying (writing)-doing-being-valuing- believing combinations,” James Paul Gee addresses in his essay “Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics” are Primary Discourses and Secondary Discourses. These Discourses are “ways of being in the world; they are forms of life which integrate words, acts, values, beliefs, attitudes, and social identities as well as gestures, glances, body positions, and clothes.” Both Discourses are acquired through acculturation. Our primary Discourse is acquired in the home and peer groups.
In the article, “Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics: Introduction”, Paul Gee informs the reader about his way of talking about literacy and linguistics and what the terms mean to him. How the term language is a misleading term. As he mentioned, "Language" is a misleading term; it too often suggest "grammar. " It is a truism that a person can know perfectly the grammar of a language and not know how to use it. It is not just what you say, but how you say it.