Some components of teacher efficacy include: developing an organized classroom environment that is supportive of positive and meaningful learning, positive beliefs and development of instructional activities in different domains of learning, engaging the involvement of parents and sourcing resources needed for learning tasks, and redirecting negative influences that may affect the flow of the academic accomplishments of students (Marat, 2007, para. 3). A strategy that can be utilized by administrators in assisting teachers in developing a high degree of teacher efficacy involves providing information on the relevance of learning in students lives. This strategy of providing information on the relevance of learning in the lives of students would be undergirded by a series of workshops that would expose teachers to components of quality and effective learning, the nature of the pubescent child, the role of culture in the process of assimilation and equilibration and how learning can be developed and supported by positive self-beliefs among students with low-self image. Workshops would be conducted for three hours per week and would involve a reflective component where teachers selected for this
Our textbook further explains that as the instructional (teacher) one can facilitate learning in many ways, if utilizing the “Right set of instructional stimuli”(pg. 40). This same perspective applies to the cognitivist learning theory where instructional design based on prediction that, “If a certain stimulus resulted in a particular response or outcome, it would do so again and again” (Harasim, 2017, p. 54). Another similarity between both learning theories, still relating to the instructional design is the taxonomies of learning. Two different authors constructed the taxonomies of learning for each learning theory: Benjamin Bloom (behaviorist learning theory) and Robert M. Gagne’ (cognitivist learning theory).
“Perhaps the single most unifying concept in the arena of early literacy instruction and assessment is recognition of the need for multiple assessment measures,”(Jones, 2003). Assessment and feedback are crucial for helping people learn. Assessment should mirror good instruction; happen continuously as part of instruction; and provide information about the levels of understanding that students are reaching. In order for learners to gain insight into their learning and their understanding, frequent feedback is critical: students need to monitor their learning and actively evaluate their strategies and their current levels of understanding. (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking, 1999) Individuals acquire a skill much more rapidly if they receive feedback about the correctness of what they have done.
This means that learning outcomes are clear, learning experiences are designed to assist student achievement of those outcomes, and carefully designed assessment tasks allow students to demonstrate achievement of those outcomes. Assessment is a process that focuses on student learning, a process that involves reviewing and reflecting on practice as academics have always done, but in a more planned and careful way (Ewell, 2000). According to Cox and Godfrey (1997) the process of utilizing assessment and evaluation within the context of education relates to the principles of good teaching and classroom management. Assessment and evaluation are necessary aspects of the teaching process because educational objectives are often very broad in their scope and, as such, are often vague. The teacher must therefore interpret these broad objectives and establish specific and tangible
There is the analogous relation between the two major approaches to learning and reflective thinking practice (Leung & Kember, 2003; Phan, 2007).This intertwined relationship is, again, pivotal to the cultivation and encouragement of quality learning in higher education contexts. Pedagogical strategies and learning objectives that entail complexities in this sense stimulate intellectual curiosity and positive perceptions of task value, facilitating in this process engagement of meaningful learning and deep learning strategies (Kember et al., 2000). In this study, students’ learning is key aspects of investigation in understanding quality in students’ learning. Especially from a phenomenographic perspective, how students approach learning is a key issue in examining qualitative
Framework of the Study Cognitive Theory Cognitive theory is the dominant theory in instructional design and many of the instructional strategies advocated and utilized by behaviorists are also used by cognitivists. When designing from a behaviorist-cognitivist position, the designer will study the situation and sets a goal. Learning objectives are developed and individual tasks are broken down. In this approach, the designer selects what is significant for the learner to know and recognize, and tries to transfer that knowledge to the learner. Cognitivists consider learners develop learning through receiving, storing, and retrieving information.
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Facilitators can help provide a supportive environment to assist in the process. The facilitator has a role to play in pre and post experience. Learners need to be prepared if they have to make most of their experience. According to Boud and Walker (1999:29) a facilitator can assist learners by introducing them to the context, and help them develop skills and strategies prior to the event. Merriam et al (2007:169) describes the various roles of the facilitator during reflection on action to include (i) encouraging learners to reflect and discuss openly ion the experience, (ii) bringing to light underlying assumptions for reflection, (iii) assessor of learner’s prior experiential learning.
Understand how to select and develop Learning Materials and Objectives Understand how adult learners and groups should use Learning Materials and how they interact with Learning Objectives Understand the importance of aligning these resources with the needs, interests and abilities. In this phase we explain why Learning Objectives are important. Basically the Objectives represent statements describing what the student is expected to achieve as a result of the training By knowing where we intend to go (what we intend to achieve), we increase the chances of the student ending up there They represent a guide for the students/learners; and helps them to focus and set priorities Facilitate the development of the course by encouraging planning They help to
• The design of the learning experience includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes. The Experiential Learning Process: A number of steps are involved in experiential learning that offer student a hands-on, collaborative and reflective learning experience which helps them to “fully learn new skills and knowledge” (Haynes, 2007). Although learning content is important, but experiential learning emphasis on the learning taken place through the process which is at the heart of experiential learning. During each step of the experience, students will engage with the content, the instructor, each other as well as self–reflect and apply what they have learned in another situation. The following describes the steps that comprise experiential learning as noted by (Haynes, 2007, para.