When a society develops, it will become necessary for a government to compensate for the eventual defect of moral virtue in individuals. However, as this is what is necessary for government to supply, that is the extent the government should be involved according to Paine. The freedom and security of a society is the aim of a government, aims which should not be overstepped. This concept of limiting government to its intended purpose is seen most clearly in the libertarian movement in modern times. Libertarianism is still keenly influenced by Paine’s anti-Federalists sentiments within this paper simply applied to modern issues.
The traditional view of a king was to rule a kingdom and sort out the injustice that the people wanted justice for. Not only did a king control the laws, politics and economics of their kingdom, the king was seen as strong enough to help lead their country into battles and come back with a victory. Henry was under pressure to make the Tudor family a successful line of Kings to help carry on a legacy, daughters were not part of his plan.
Absolutism meant prosperity because monarchs were considered gods (or God 's power on earth), they changed countries for the better, and could be liked by the people for not doing everything in a harsh way. To many, monarchs were God 's form on earth. King James I of England said that "The state of monarchy is the supreme thing upon earth; for kings are not only God’s lieutenants on earth, and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God Himself they are called gods..." (Document 2). Like King James I, people believed monarchs were needed because they had power like God. Kings and Queens were essential and brought goodness to the land.
Thomas Hobbes in his book “Leviathan” argues that an absolute monarchy is the best form of government. He provided several reasonings in defending his views; laws obeyed, the interest of the people achieved, consistent laws and social utility maximized. In this paper, I will look at the advantages and disadvantages of having a monarchy, and I will support his argument that monarchy is necessary for society and why it is the best form of government. In a monarchy, the sovereign can be self-motivated, and Hobbes agrees that the self-interest motivates a monarch just like everyone else leading to corruption and unfair distribution of wealth in a society. Hobbes asserts “when the public interest happens to conflict with the private, he usually
The perceived legitimacy of governments stems from the powers the governments hold, how they enforce laws, and how their citizens act on them. The different political organizations throughout the world mainly depend on the two pathways that an organization can take. The first being consensus, which is linked to democratic rule, in which people are brought together and create common rule based on their needs of protection and security. Coercion on the other hand, is very much linked with authoritarian rule, in which a ruler brings people together and monopolizes the authority and security through dominated the power of the people. In order for a country to be considered legitimate, the people must trust the efforts and aim of the country,
Thomas Hobbes proposed that the ideal government should be an absolute monarchy as a direct result of experiencing the English Civil War, in which there was internal conflict between the parliamentarians and the royalists. Hobbes made this claim under the assumption that an absolute monarchy would produce consistent policies, reduce conflicts and lower the risk of civil wars due to the singular nature of this ruling system. On another hand, John Locke counters this proposal with the view that absolute monarchies are not legitimate as they are inconsistent with the state of nature. These two diametrically opposed views stem from Hobbes’ and Locke’s different understandings of human nature, namely with regard to power relationships, punishment, and equality in the state of nature. Hobbes’ belief that human beings are selfish and appetitive is antithetical with Locke’s contention that human beings are intrinsically moral even in the state of nature, which results in Locke’s strong disagreement with Hobbes’ proposed absolute monarchy.
When talking about empires, a negative connotation of being oppressed is usually present. Living in the modern age, we tend to consider democracy as the “rightest form of government”. However, democracy is not simply “freedom for all” or “the will of the people” for ancient empires. It was a complex, delicate system that sometime people overlook its inherent fragility. Many democratic states, such as ancient Athens, the Roman Republic, failed to keep the promise of freedom for all and ended up in failure.
Nietzsche even pointed out that liberalism, like religion, can be used as a form of legitimation (Cristi, 2010). A modern liberal state is founded on “consent” of the people (ibid). The problem with this is that it cannot guarantee the compliance of every individual (i.e. if they do not feel obligated to obey the laws) and this would eventually lead the state to its downfall (ibid). Likewise, Weber argues that because of the democratic ideas brought in by the French Revolution, “people are reluctant to accept that anyone is entitled to rule except the people themselves” (Shaw, 2008).
When these measures did not prove sufficient, the monarch waged war against these opposing groups, which was cleverly called ‘diplomacy by other means’. The spoils of the wars brought in revenue for the kingdom and displayed the military prowess of the state. However, these wars did not take place simply to further eco-political aspirations but more importantly, in the monarch’s expansionist view, he sought to destroy obstacles that would prevent him from being the sole power in all his conquered land. Many of these wars took place within the state itself, as there were several ruling families and warring factions with varying ideologies who all looked to be the only rulers of the state. Therefore, absolutism was also an achievement that referred to a ruler being able to diminish the power of the other ruling families and establish their power as the strongest and, most importantly, the only power in that state.
in the political sphere, first thing to do is constitute itself from what Derrida calls “constitutive outside”. Mouffe thinks that this the crucial point for her conceptualisation of democracy theory because only if there is a difference in public, there is a power which can be limited by institutions. So modern liberal democracy is under illusion that people can free themselves from forms of power but on the contrary under guise of neutrality liberal democratic institutions practice forms of exclusion and violent acts in order to reach consensus. In nowadays liberal democracy is seen as an only legitimate form of government. Especially after the collapse of U.S.S.R, political theorists who defend the politics is