In contrast to John Locke 's successes , Baron de Montesquieu also had an impact on our government. Originally named Charles Louis de Secondat, Montesquieu was born in Bordeaux France in 1689. Montesquieu did a lot of thinking about how a government was to be created and then maintained. The term liberty to him meant "a peace of mind that comes from being safe", with this in mind he came to believe that safety could only exist if laws were followed. If the government was able to to enforce laws,that could be easily followed, then that would increase "liberty" and improve our world.
He was a French philosopher who wrote the Age of Enlightenment about freedom, and democracy. Much of his writing made the aristocracy and monarchies furious because he was going against them. His ideas influenced people in the American Revolution and even the French Revolution. Thomas Paine was influenced by Voltaire in writing the Common Sense pamphlet. The ideas in his writing influenced the line in the second paragraph “all men are created equal” and also the 1st amendment about religion and freedom in the Declaration of Independence (Unknown 4).
Montesquieu’s and Rousseau’s ideas of enlightenment were also incorporated in the document. The idea of the separation of power comes from The Spirit of Laws, a book written by Montesquieu to promote liberty and prevent tyranny. His theory of dividing political power and being shared equally among a variety of classes were important in order to prevent the abuse of power. It establishes that all men are to be created equal. Written by Jean-Jacque Rousseau, The Social Contract contributes on the concept of the general will and popular sovereignty .
In fact, the concept of democracy, I believe, rose from these very concepts. The efforts to create an egalitarian society are evident in his writing: “from this equality of ability, ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends.” However, the limitation of the notion provided by Thomas shows that humans, as selfish beings, cannot work together in harmony as the greed of attaining more cause conflict between the two. As he writes: “And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies.” Albeit true, it can be applied in one context and not another. Hence, the theory is valid in situations where resources are less; this, now, as we know, is not applicable because we have the resources readily available to us. Therefore, is human as selfish as Thomas shows?
He 's a forerunner of Romanticism, and promoted the ideas of the return to nature, the Natural Law, the Noble Savage and the importance of natural education. His works influenced the leaders of the French revolution, since Rousseau rejected the restraints placed on man in his contemporary society. He encouraged man to embrace his emotions and to step away from the pretentiousness of society ("Jean-Jaqcues Rousseau"). Rousseau 's Romanticism was apparent in his visions of a regenerated human nature. He found man to be ultimately good in nature, and that society 's influence and pretentiousness are what spoiled man 's essential goodness.
While the rules were limiting the full potential of its people, it is important to keep in mind that they did have food, shelter, and support from their brothers, so some of the more socialistic ideas might actually be contributory to a new society. In the novel it says “...everything which is not permitted by law is forbidden (31).”” Rules and laws should not tell people everything that they can do, they should tell them everything that they can't do. Laws in the United States are like this and Prometheus will probably make his new society based on many on the same principles that there is in the U.S.. Furthermore, the House of Vocations assigns people in the City the occupation that they do for their whole lifetime. Prometheus will allow them to choose their own job in the new society because it will allow them to be happier throughout their whole lives.
In its ideal state power to control people 's views, there is a limited censorship and have religious restrictions. In other words, monarchy was the best form of government to ensure a better social life.Hobbes, he defends a philosophical absolutism. The idea that absolute power is not good, because it is supported by God, it is better because it best. Leviathan - a sea monster that is the ruler. Hobbes believes that it is important to have the line to keep us from destroying each other.
Ah, Democracy! What a crazy premise, the idea that the people can rule and govern themselves; John Locke was all about it, and wrote tons of influential shit, shaped America back then and today. In fact in his Second Treatise of government, Locke made amazing points and arguments (like the importance of property and personal liberty, as well as the importance of separate powers with clearly defined roles) that influenced Founding Fathers while writing The Federalist Papers. Jay, Madison, and Hamilton created the Federalist Papers to convince the individual states to ratify the new U.S. Constitution and defend a central government. Often times the Founding Fathers echoed John Locke 's ideas and concepts, especially in Federalist #10, #39, and
William Golding who was a novelist that believed human is born with the tendency to do evil, Jean-Jacques Rousseau had his own idea. Rousseau once quoted that “society’s negative influence on men centers on its transformation of “amour de soi” into “amour-propre” (The Basics of Philosophy). Saying that the environment changes one person from a positive self-love with human desire for self-preservation, combined with the human power of reason into a kind of artificial pride which forces man to compare himself to others, creating fear and allowing men to take pleasure in the pain or weakness of others (The Basics of Philosophy). Also
The purpose of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are life, liberty, property,security, and resistance to oppression.” These philosophies were violated and corrupted the purpose of the enlightenment. According to the Napoleonic code, March 24 1804, it states “The husband owes protection to his wife, the wife obedience to her husband”. This clearly portrays how obsolete France’s social reforms were, only further assisting the stringent sexist ideals implemented into France’s administrative constitution. Hence, although some may dispute the claim that the French Revolution fulfilled the principles of the enlightenment, the transparency of the situation gives context to the bloodshed and