Erikson holds that each stage must be resolved before children can ascend to the next stage. Maturity and social forces aid in the resolution of the crisis or conflict. Therefore, teachers and parents assume a capable part in recognizing each stage. By equipping children with social opportunity and support, teachers and parents can assist children overcome each crisis. These four stages of Erikson’s theory stages occur during the early childhood years.
Even if language focuses on a child’s ability be able to understand and speak a language, it is better if the child knows how to think, learn, and solve problems as they grow in order for them to figure out how things work in their surrounding and how they will be able to stand on their own once they encounter a problem. Even at their young age, a child does experience minor problems such as how to get up after they fall from standing, walking, talking, etc. As I have said earlier, cognitive development correlates with language development. Through the process of learning how to talk, at the same time, the child starts think, learn, understand, and solve his or her problem. It may be as simple as trying to talk clearly by mimicking.
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses on understanding how children acquire knowledge, and on understanding the nature of intelligence. (Kathleen 2000) the theory explained the changes in logical thinking of children. Cognitive theory’s focuses on the structure and development of a person’s thought processes; it focuses on not only how children gather the information but also understanding how it has been
Piaget and Maslow: Teaching the whole child Exceptional educators keep their fingers on the pulse of what their students need, in order to teach them effectively. Examining Piaget and Maslow’s theories, and applying them to the classroom will facilitate achieving this goal. Considering Piaget’s focus on development, and Maslow’s prioritization of human needs, one can integrate these ideas into classrooms and lesson plans that are optimized for student success. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Piaget asserts, children are born with inherited scripts, called schema, these schema are building blocks for cognitive development. As a child grows, he acquires more of these building blocks; moreover, these building blocks become more complex as the child progresses through different stages in development (Huitt, Hummel 2003).
Understanding the rationales of cognitive perspective helps an individual to interact with children in a better way. It is very important for a child to develop a proper cognitive ability from a young age. By understanding the rationales of cognitive development, one is able to know what to expose the children to as they develop. Also, one knows how to advise the parents of the children on the various methods of handling their children. Once one acquires this skills they are able to distinguish the different types of children and know exactly how to handle each of them.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Cognition is a process where different aspects of the mind are working together that lead to knowledge. Piaget’s cognitive development theory is based on stages that children go through as they grow that lead them to actively learn new information. Cognitive change occurs with schemes that children and adults go through to make sense of what is happening around them. The change that occurs is activity based when the child is young and later in life correlates to mental thinking. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development start from birth to adulthood and it begins with the sensorimotor stage, a child from birth to the age of 2 years old learns and thinks by doing and figuring out how something works.
It is impressive that most of his research is based on observation and studying of his own children. Cognitive development stages are the central part of Piaget’s theory, which demonstrate the development stages of children’s ability to think from infancy to adolescence, how to gain knowledge, self-awareness, awareness of the others and the environment. These stages are respectively relative to 4 ranges of age. It consists of characteristics of each stage and phenomena of each. The first stage between birth to 2 years old, children learn the external through senses and action, instinctively.
The systematic study of cognitive development was first made by Piaget. Piaget’s theory observes and describes children at different ages. His theory is very extensive, which starts from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development, and memory. Piaget’s assume that children construct their own knowledge in response to their experiences. Hence children
As I discussed above, Piaget believed that all children sought out information and they would naturally develop these abilities but Vygotsky presents a more logical theory. As children, our interaction with our surroundings and the people around us shapes how we develop. “According to Vygotsky, language is the basis for cognitive development, including the ability to remember, solve problems, make decisions and formulate plans” (Martin et al., 2010). When young children below the age of seven would say words to themselves, Piaget saw this as an egocentric and non-social act whereas Vygotsky saw this is an early learning and memorisation process. Once the child reached a certain age (middle childhood), they would stop talking to themselves thus developing what he called an “inner speech”.
The Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL, 2003) defines social-emotional learning (SEL) as the process of developing students’ knowledge, attitudes and skills required to manage emotions, build healthy relationships, possess empathy and make decisions. Social-emotional skills are essential for working with others, achieving goals and reducing anti-social behaviors. CASEL has identified five connected sets of competencies in social Emotional leaning: social-awareness (understand others feelings and sympathy), self-awareness (recognizing emotions), self-management (controlling emotions and impulses), and making-decisions (problem solving), and relationship skills (communication). Social emotional learning goes beyond teaching children subject areas; it encourages children recognize their ability “to integrate thinking, feeling and, behaving to achieve important life tasks” (Zins et al., 2004, p. 194). Social and Emotional Learning influences both high and low sociality and emotionally skilled children (Raimundo, Marques-Pinto, & Lima,