To facilitate learning of children, patterns of learning can be modified and more elements of cognitive training can be added in play of students. On the other hand, different students may achieve different levels of cognitive skills. It is important for teachers to notice the difference of progress of students. Different levels of intervention of framing of knowledge can be adopted by teachers, which influence students’ understanding of knowledge (Arcidiacono, & Perret-Clermont, 2009). Next, since only performance of one subject is observed, it is suggested to enlarge the scale of research and observe the performance of different participants.
‘Constructivist’ theory of learning is considered to be the main developmental theories of learning currently working in the area of special educational needs. Constructivism is ‘child-centred development’. It is an active and building process, where learners use what they already know to learn new things, and infer new knowledge based on their interaction with new experiences outside themselves, using information and ideas from within themselves, or already obtained. In other words, knowledge is considered to be socially constructed because it is obtained in partnership between new experiences and knowledge already acquired. Constructivism is useful for understanding the way in which a child may progress educationally, which is important
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Cognition is a process where different aspects of the mind are working together that lead to knowledge. Piaget’s cognitive development theory is based on stages that children go through as they grow that lead them to actively learn new information. Cognitive change occurs with schemes that children and adults go through to make sense of what is happening around them. The change that occurs is activity based when the child is young and later in life correlates to mental thinking. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development start from birth to adulthood and it begins with the sensorimotor stage, a child from birth to the age of 2 years old learns and thinks by doing and figuring out how something works.
Development is seen as progressive changes in the child’s apparent behavior as shaped by the environment over time . According to B. F. Skinner, the behaviorist teacher’s occupation is to plan, carry out, and evaluate instruction and to supply appropriate reinforcement for learning and behavior, producing the accurate response from the child . Teacher-directed learning and activities requiring little relational interface between the adult and child, such as rote activities and workbooks, are commonly used by
Bruner Piaget influenced Bruner on his research about Child development, he believed that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. The effective instruction includes: • Personalized: instruction should relate to learner’s experiences that motivates the student to learn from within one’s self. • Content Structure: Content must be designed so it can be easily grasped by the student. He also called this aspect a “Spiral curriculum” building thinking and learning skills over time to make it deeper and more complex, builds on itself. • Sequencing: An important aspect of material presentation.
He believed that interaction between a child and a skillful tutor is vital for the child's learning. He calls this collaborative dialogue because the child learns the instructions from the tutor and internalizes the information given to them and uses it later when it is needed. In his theory, more emphasis was put on how the culture affected development. He thought that the environment surrounding the children when the are growing up would influence the process of how they think and what they are thinking about. This is why Vygotsky believed that development differs across different cultures.
PART (a) (a) Fully explain the 4 enunciated propositions therein, which Educators must pay attention to, in order to counter the over emphasis on the cognitive domain. (15) Humans are lifelong learners. “Holistic approaches to teaching and learning recognize the connectedness of mind, body and spirit…” (Deewr, 2009). The various learning styles and the needs of evolving human beings’ responsiveness impact on the holistic education. Holistic education’s principle is to prepare children to meet the challenges of living and learning.
Piaget’s stage theory on cognitive development is divided into 4 stages; sensorimotor stage (0 – 2 years), Preoperational stage (2 – 4 years), Concrete operations (7 – 11 years), Formal operations (11 – 15 years). The theory was developed by Piaget who observed his own children, and the process they went through to make sense of the world around them. This theory explains to us how the mind processes new information it receives though different encounters. The rate at which children develop will differ but the sequence of development will always stay the same, they will go through all 4 stages of cognitive development. In the Sensorimotor stage children will learn through trial and error, they will test different things to find out how they
One of the theories I found the most interesting throughout the duration of this class is Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. This theory emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society. (pg 55). According to Vygotsky, until children learn to use mental tools, their learning is largely controlled by the environment; they attend only to the things that are brightest or loudest, and they can remember something only if has been repeated many times. After children master mental tools, they take control of their own learning, by attending and remembering in an intentional and purposeful way.
The theory explains the tools and processes used by children as they develop into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses, hence the importance of cognitive development. Additionally, this can be done through the adaption of learning skills. Learning skills contains four different aspects: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creative thinking. These skills would prepare students for the rapid changes globally when they are applied in the classroom. Students would be able to carefully analyze and effectively evaluate thoughts, discover new ideas and