Jean Piaget is exceptionally known for his contributions to the world of studying developmental psychology, especially in children. He is most known for his four-stage theory on cognitive development, a widespread theory about the development of the human intelligence. His “stage theory” is a form of discontinuous development, which means that opposed to continuous development, it is not an ongoing progression of gradual changes throughout life; rather certain behaviors and skills occur within distinct stages of life. Piaget was curious as to how knowledge grew as we progressed throughout life. Piaget was also known for his theories on moral development in children, he has come up with a three-stage theory and has done several studies to further expand upon his research.
Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social. Interactionists argue that language learning is influenced by the desire of children to communicate with others. The Interactionists argue that "children are born with a powerful brain that matures slowly and predisposes them to acquire new understandings that they are motivated to share with others" ( Bates,1993;Tomasello,1995, as cited in shaffer,et al.,2002,p.362). The main theorist associated with interactionist theory is Lev Vygotsky.Interactionists focus on Vygotsky 's model of collaborative learning ( Shaffer,et al.,2002). Collaborative learning is the idea that conversations with older people can help children both cognitively and linguistically (
Piaget developed the theory of cognitive development to examine how children develop their thinking and reasoning when facing problems with the world around them at different ages. This essay critically analyses Piaget’s cognitive development theory. The aim of discussion is to investigate how Piaget’s theory is applied to young children in primary school learning areas and to discuss the strengths and implications of the theory that have an effect on developing an educational pedagogy. Firstly, the key processes of Piaget’s theory are explained and the connections it has with the development and learning of children. The discussion continues with how the concepts advise your developing educational pedagogy.
Piaget 's theory of cognitive development. According to Mallon(1967) Piaget was concerned in the question " how do we know what we know?" . Piaget theorized that if one could study the evolution of thought from childhood through adolescence , the question might be answered . According to him general intelligence is an example of adaptive behavior .He believed that at any given stages in the gradual process of intellectual growth, the child is capable of understanding certain concepts and that more complex understandings and intelligence develop as information is recognized and new capabilities develop.
Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s cognitive development theory analyses the growth of children’s development for thinking and intellectual. In fact, American Psychological Association (2015) refers to cognitive development as the ‘The development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving’. This essay analyses Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. In addition to this, Piaget’s key concepts will be discussed which include; children and young people construct their own knowledge, individuals possess their own mental templates, equilibration and the stages of cognitive development that children and young people undertake will be investigated. Further to this, a critical reflection will be constructed
In contrast to Redl and Wattenberg 's theories about teachers; Skinner 's theory states that behaving students will continue to demonstrate positive behavior. The misbehaving students, desiring the positive reinforcement, will begin to behave appropriately. Redl and Wattenberg 's (1959) theories have contributed significantly to classroom management. Middle school educators can take several directions from those theories. Some of which are understanding group dynamics where one 6th-grade teacher established a rule that students must raise their hands to answer a question.
“Individuals are born with reflexes that allow them to interact with the environment. These reflexes are quickly replaced by constructed mental schemes or structures that allow them to interact with, and adapt to, the environment” (Lutz, S., & Huitt, W,2004). Piaget believes that each person is born with the ability to think and they use ideas gained from their environment to advance their thinking process in each stage of development. Fleming, PhD(2005), states that Piaget did his study on moral development of a child by carrying out experiments in two different ways. The first way was by getting the children to play a game but they are not made aware of the rules of the game.
Along with that he offered encouraging children to play so that they can develop physically and intellectually. Also he is against parents ' ridiculing with children. When we learnt his view on development of children, we began to think that Al-Gazali made a contribution on Diana Baumrind who found 4 following parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive,uninvolved. Baumrind 's authoritative parenting means moderate approach that emphasizes setting high standards, being nurturing and responsive, and showing respect for children. These characteristics were recommended by Al-Ghazali before Baumrind.
This is then followed by the connections between the key concepts and the cognitive development of children which will an educator’s developing pedagogy. Finally, an outline of the strengths and outlines of Piaget 's theory. The significant Piaget’s key concepts to understand children’s learning and development: Jean Piaget formulated a model which determined a way of how a human’s mind gathers and organises information. Bormanaki and Khoshhal (2017 pg997) state "according to Piaget 's research; human beings have two basic tendencies of thinking." The first tendency is an organisation which is “ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories” (Woolfolk, Margetts 2016 pg81).
Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways as illustrated during the famous bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961 as cited by McLeod, 2011). When children learn, they have their own aim or motive such as solve a problem, finish their homework or complete some experiments. With these aim to accomplish, they observe, judge and react to their perceived progress. As what Schunk (2012) had cited Bandura (1986) and Kanfer & Gaelick (1986), an early social cognitive theory viewed self-regulation as compromising three processes which are self-observation, self-judgment, and self-reaction. The component processes underlying this observational learning are attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.