Piaget’s theory observes and describes children at different ages. His theory is very extensive, which starts from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development, and memory. Piaget’s assume that children construct their own knowledge in response to their experiences. Hence children learn many things on their own without the interference of older children or adults. Furthermore children are naturally motivated to learn and do not need rewards from adults to motivate learning There are three separate stages of development in Piaget’s cognitive theory.
They analyze the children’s behavior by age and question their abilities. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development explains all the stages of development from birth to adulthood and Bandura’s theory of social learning studies the process of behavior imitation as a way of learning and exploring the surrounding environment thru rewards, benefits and penalties. Further analyzing these theories have met a lot of criticism. On the one hand, according to the behaviorists Vygotsky and Bruner there are not certain stages of development because everyone matures differently. Also Piaget did not consider the effects from social setting and culture in his theory.
Thomas (2005) wrote that early in Piaget’s career he worked with children and his observations and interactions with the students led him to the theory that a young person 's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults (pp. 188-9). According to Ahmad, Ch, Batool, Sittar, and Malik (2016), Piaget showed that when compared to adults, young children think in differently and he then came to the conclusion that cognitive development was an ongoing process which occurred due to maturation and interaction with the environment (p. 72). Piaget theorized that each child was born with a basic mental structure that would serve as the foundation upon which all future learning and knowledge would be constructed. He developed his Cognitive Development Theory to explain the process by which the infant would eventually develop into an individual
The Theory of Mind, or ToM, places a significant role is the special ways in which children develop throughout life. According to Baris Korkmaz, the theory of mind is cognitive capabilities that allow us to be conscious of abstract ideas such as desires, beliefs, plans, hopes, information, and intentions of others that may be different from our own. The theory of mind consists of functions such as memory, face-recognition, empathy, imitation, language, and other important functions. Many neurological disorders can impair the theory of mind in young, developing children. Disorders that can damage the theory of mind are ADHD, or attention deficit hyper-activity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia (Korkmaz, 2011).
My Views about these theories: To start with, I believe that Piaget 's goal is to explain the mechanisms by which the infant, and then the child, develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses. This is because the child is an active learner in his/her development process as the teacher will be acting only as a facilitator. • Piaget believed that children go through 4 universal stages of cognitive development. A child 's cognitive development is about constructing a mental image of the world around them this keep on changing as the child matures. • Furthermore, Piaget also talked about Discovery learning.
Amidst pre-adulthood, the making kid finds the opportunity to be especially arranged to understand phenomenally process and theoretical musings. Precisely when run up against with an issue, kids at this stage ought to be able to survey each and every conceivable system for understanding it and experience them hypothetically recollecting a definitive goal to achieve an answer. As per Piaget, the fundamental three times of progress are general, yet not all grown-ups go to the formal operational stage. The progress of formal operational thought depends to some degree in travel toward coaching. Grown-ups of obliged instructive accomplishment have a tendency to stay to think in more solid terms and hold wide bits of knowledge of egocentrism (Giddens,
Children begin a period of trial and error experimentation during the fifth sub stage. 6 - Mental representation (8months-24moths): Children begin to identify the world through the mental processes. The preoperational stage: begins from (2 to7years), this stage focus on self, the child starts to talk but an inability to conservation and don't understand that other people have different points of you and imagine things. There is two sub stages during this period: 1- Preoperational phase (2-4years): children form a mental image of what they see around them. 2- Intuitive phase (4-7 years): children are sometimes able to grasp a problem solution by how the fell about it .
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses on understanding how children acquire knowledge, and on understanding the nature of intelligence. (Kathleen 2000) the theory explained the changes in logical thinking of children. Cognitive theory’s focuses on the structure and development of a person’s thought processes; it focuses on not only how children gather the information but also understanding how it has been
The second, identified largely in the work of Koppitz (1968), attempted to form and validate the existence of emotional indicators in children’s drawings. The third type has been concerned with the ways in which normal children depict personally important or emotionally significant topics. There have been a number of tests by psychologists all over the world in order to support or deny the role of a drawing in the development process of the child. For example, Gamradt and Staples (1994) called children studying in classes 1-6 to draw on the subject of their school in order to get a better understanding of their school environment. Haney, Rusell and Bebell (2004), used the drawings to explore the child’s perspective of the school and the learning environment.
By having time for undirected play, children learn how to work collaboratively with peers, to share, to resolve conflicts, and learn how to voice out for themselves as well. When the game is driven by the children themselves, they are given the chance to practice decision-making skills, to discover and engage in the area they feel interested in, and eventually getting independent. On a side note, time for playing offers parents the precious chance to further interact with their children.