Theory X pertains to “a pessimistic view of employees,” in which they are not satisfied with their work, must be constantly “monitored,” and must be compensated or punished. This view, according to McGregor, is the common standpoint of managers. Thus, theory Y is proposed in order to replace the traditional context with a new and positive outlook. It connotes that employees are well-satisfied with their jobs, dedicated, hardworking and innovative. Leaders that possess the traits of theory Y are perceived of positive benefits while working as a team in regard to mutual trust, collaboration and contributions (“Content Theories of Motivation,” n.d., p.
One of the important organizational factors is human resource practices (J. B. Arthur, 1994) (M. A. Huselid, 1995). Various researchers agree that HR practices are to manage the pool of human resources and ensure that the resources are utilized for the fulfilment of organizational goals (R. S. Schuler and S.F. Jackson, 1987) (P. M. Wright and S. A. Snell, 1991). Form the literature, negative work outcomes such as absenteeism and turnover (usually good employees who quit their job voluntarily), it is also possible to link that HR practices could contribute to deviant behavior.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s two-factor theory both highlight ways through which workers can be/remain motivated and attain job satisfaction. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was developed by Abraham Maslow; an American psychologist. It is arranged into a pyramid with physiological needs at the bottom followed by safety and security, love and belonging, esteem needs and ending with self-actualization at the top. Frederick Herzberg was an American psychologist, just like Maslow. He created a list of motivators that he believed would help give employees job satisfaction and hygiene factors that could lead to demotivation.
Issues associated with exclusion from the workplace also highlight the need for professionalism, fairness and ethical behaviour on the part of those engaged in this activity. Recruitment and selection also has an important role to play in ensuring worker performance and positive organisational outcomes. It is often claimed that selection of workers occurs not just to replace departing employees or add to a workforce but rather aims to put in place workers who can perform at a high level and demonstrate commitment (Ballantyne, 2009). We will elaborate on the sometimes complex linkages between recruitment and selection and performance later in this chapter. To appreciate the specific nature of graduate recruitment and selection, it was essential that we first explored general recruitment and selection literature.
These theories and models can be used to reduce employee turnover in Organizations. Following theories are relevant to the situations hypothesized in the research under study. 2.9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Theory Abraham Maslow an American psychologist developed this famous theory discussing what the human needs are that satisfies humans and why people want to meet their basic needs. In a 1943 paper called “A Theory of Human Motivation” Maslow clearly stated regarding the responsibility of employers to provide particular conditions of employment (Including Monetary benefits) to encourage and enable employees to fulfill their unique potentials. (A.H Maslow, 1943) Maslow in his hierarchy suggest that human needs exist at a number of different levels from the basic psychological needs to higher level needs such as self-development and self-fulfillment.
In this rat race, ultimately organization suffers the heat of losing the most capable employee. Moreover, to increase the work life balance & maintain the healthy environment at workplace, organization introduces employee engagement activities like R&R, goodies, team lunch, trips & treks, events, holidays & comp offs etc. The literature survey will focus in depth the reason of such strategies, thus helping us to understand the theoretical aspects proposed by several researchers & authors. Objective • To identify various employment engagement activities opted by IT organizations. • To ensure whether Employee Engagement initiatives has direct relation with employee retention, satisfaction & loyalty.
Self-efficacy is referred to as an individual’s self-belief in his ability to accomplish particular tasks and it has been related with workplace performance, the experience of stress, burnout, and role adjustments. Given it is persuasive role on performance; therefore, it is serious important for managers or bosses to know the role of self-efficacy within the workplace (Talkdesk, 2013). Self-efficacy affects employees’ performance in workplace in the various ways, such as; Self-efficacy views disturb the choices one has to make and the opinion of trial of their goals and their level of obligation to individual goals. Now with that being said, employees with low levels of self-efficacy tend to choose less challenging goals for themselves and the employees with high level of self-efficacy tend to choose more challenging goals for him. Secondly, Employees perform and use effort at levels dependable with
Gen Y sees this type of communication as effective and efficient, while the older generation sees this as lazy and potentially harmful to business. B. How do we bridge the gap between the generations in the workplace? Each generation has a unique set of strengths and weaknesses and it is the managers’ jobs to identify those points and find ways to get the most out of their employees. First of all understanding the generational differences of all employees and making a list of which employee falls under which generation.
‘How work is organized’ and the ‘leadership style’ of the organization can produce role conflict and poor work control (Einarsen, Raknes and Matthiesen, 1994; as cited in Jennifer, 2000). Thus, it is up to the culture of the organization to set a precedent for unambiguous work flow, higher production, and zero tolerance for workplace bullying. Other researchers have found that the “work environment and organizational climate (Einarsen et al., 1994; Vartia, 1996); job content and social work environment (Zapf, Knorz and Kulla, 1996); work organization and poor conflict management (Einarsen and Skogstad, 1996; Leymann, 1996); inappropriate managerial behavior (Crawford,
Herzberg in the case of the 1844 survey found that the main causes of employee dissatisfaction is due to the company's executive management. Policy processes, oversight organizations,working,conditions,wages,status,security and mismanagement caused by other human relations. Although these factors are improved, but not so that employees become satisfied, not really inspire the enthusiasm of employees, can only play the role of employee dissatisfaction lift, so this factor is called hygiene factors. Research shows that if hygiene factors can not be met, tend to make employees generate discontent, slacking, or even cause strikes against the behavior. Herzberg in the case of another 1753 survey found that making employees feel very satisfied factors,