2. JOB SATISFACTION DEFINITION Job satisfaction can be defined as a response which cannot be seen but inferred to a situation. Job satisfaction shows our attitude towards the job and is associated with the outcomes and expectations. According to Locke, it is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction is an outcome of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
He created a list of motivators that he believed would help give employees job satisfaction and hygiene factors that could lead to demotivation. Maslow’s hierarchy shows that although it is perceived that good pay at work should keep a worker happy and motivated, it is not enough, and rather that esteem, fulfillment of potential and appreciation are what truly motivates workers. Maslow believed that decision-making and challenges were more important than adequate pay in terms of
On the other hand, non-financial rewards do not increase the financial pay off to the employee: “Instead of making the employee’s life better off the job [like financial rewards do], non-financial rewards emphasize making life of the job more attractive”. [ct. De Cenzo & Robbins 1994, pp.413]. These types of rewards are motivational and includes things such as better work environment, modern equipment, excursions and parking spaces. “One way to provide non-financial motivation is to provide an opportunity for job rotation. This is a great training tool so that the employee can have a better understanding of all that jobs that are done in the organisation”.
The assumption is that a high identification with the organizational goals causes more satisfaction in work and this in combination with absorption in the job will lead to a higher affective commitment to the organization. When an employee scores low on the dimension meaning, we expect a low score on affective commitment, and we do not expect affective commitment to be higher when the employee’s job engagement is high. On the contrary, we expect even a lower score on affective commitment in case the employee is very engaged in his job. This is assumed because the employee does not identify his own goals with the ones of the organization, which is not really satisfying. Besides he is concentrated to his work activities and this causes a chance that the employee is not really committed to the organization and is not really involved with the willingness to stay
Stacy Adams believed that when there is inequity people will react in several different ways, some will justify the inequity by downplaying their efforts, eg ‘I don’t work that hard so I don’t deserve what that person earns’, or highlighting the referents inputs, eg ‘that person is more qualified than me so deserves better pay’. However, his theory relies on the following reaction, if the person perceiving the inequity increases or decreases their inputs to match the referents outcomes to create a more equal work environment. This was shown to be true in a study with piece-rate employees. Those who felt they were being underpaid increased quantity and reduced quality in order to achieve the same pay as other workers. Those who felt they were overpaid reduced quantity while keeping the quality the same, again trying to achieve and equal pay across the board (Kanfer 1990).
In their article Porter & Lawler, embrace the notion intrinsic and extrinsic instrument to self-worth“effective performance would lead to both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, which would in turn produce total job satisfaction” (Porter and Lawler 1968, p.3). In the context of the workplace there are other instrument to self-worth other than wages that enables the employee to recognize his self-worth. For example, employees often feels recognized when they are appreciated in the workplace like being motivated by managers, promoted and being part of the team. Furthermore incentives in the form of wages often lack value in situations where other issues like discrimination in a workplace exist. In situation where employees feel unappreciated and discriminated, the monetary value of doing that job becomes meaningless and
Intrinsic motivation being employees are interested on the work because it is personally interesting, rewarding, challenging. Job satisfaction and the achievement of your personal goals are some examples of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation being employees work solely for the reason to receive a reward or the outcome. Extrinsic motivated employees are more concerned about the end results (pay raise, benefits, and promotions) than
It is highly tangible form of recognition and an effective means of helping people to feel that they are valued. Other dissatisfaction from Herzberg’s list of hygiene factors, such as working conditions or the quality of management, can loom longer in some people’s mind when they fail to get the satisfaction they need from work itself. Furthermore the theory asserts that although money is a motivator but it will not motivate all individuals since human being needs differ. What is mostly recommended is to practice performance related pay scheme which will cause every individual to be well motivated and hence high performing individuals since money provides the means to achieve a number of different ends. Study made by (Jacques, 1961) as quoted by (Armstrong, 2006,p.268) has got a role on this theory in which she argued that, the reward should be clearly related to effort or level of pursuing responsibilities and people should not receive less money than they deserve compared to other workers and this was named as ‘felt- fair’
While tying their wages with the company’s performance would improve their efficiency. Therefore, to the workers, working overtime would bring out results in not only monetary values but also emotional values of the satisfaction. This solution can only be made possible with the cooperation of the respective head departments to organize such valuable activities. Simple does not mean ineffective, simple works just