. Liberalist are thinking how to create a peaceful relation among country up to relation among individual and one of the sytemic and deeper explanation is brought by a German philospher, Immanuel Kant with his essay entitled “Perpetual Peace” . His thought drive the direction of liberalism. Immanuel Kant believes to resolve the situation at that time,they need to find ‘state peace’. Kant is not envisage the establishment of a world government or even unite sovereignty, but more into a ‘loose’ federation that consist of free state which governed by the rule of law.
Many Enlightenment philosophers believed that government’s job is to well take care of all of its citizens, not just people with power or who are important for the government. This is where modern democracy came from. In modern days, many of the countries in the world are democracy. The Enlightenment brought political modernization to the West, introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies. John Locke, one of the most influential philosophers during the Enlightenment, based his governance in social contract theory.
According to Emmanuel Kant, enlightenment refers to being free to use an individual’s intelligence (Kristic, 312). The Enlightenment broke through an existing sacred circle that had influenced the thinking of people. The sacred circle, in this case, refers to the existing independent relationship between church leaders and texts found in the Bible. The enlightenment is also a source of important ideas like the centrality of freedom, reasons for main values of the society and democracy as opposed to the rights held by traditions and kings as the authority that rules. According to these views, establishing the contractual basis of rights would result in capitalism and market mechanism, religious tolerance, scientific methods and the organization of different states into their self-governing republics by democratic means.
J RAWLS, The Laws of Peoples-with the Idea of Public Reason Revisited, Harvard University Press: USA, 1999. John Rawls was an influential political philosopher and his publications are widely read. One of which is the Law of Peoples published in 1993 which is the subject of my study. In the Law of Peoples Rawls concerns of the general principles whereby one can uphold and be accept by the liberal people as well as the non-liberal society. “This principle is a standard for which can be useful in regulating the behavior of the citizens towards one and other.” The liberal people have a just constitutional democracy government that serves their basic interests.
He argues that perpetual peace can be warranted by the approving of three “definitive articles” of peace. The first article necessitates that state’s constitution must be republican. He means a political society which has resolved the issue of merging moral autonomy, social order and individualism. According to second definitive article, liberal republics will gradually create peace by the operation of the pacific federation. Federation of Free states and by maintaining of the rights of each state will lead to establish peace through the pacific union.
He shared his philosophy of exercising the law with that of Aristotle. They believed that the law existed to be applied for “ordering the common good (David boucher and Paul Kelly, 2009). But unlike Aristotle who accepted many forms of government such as monarchy, aristocracy, or rule by the people, St. Thomas had only best form of government which was absolute monarchy. FORMS OF GOVERNMENT Aquinas advocated the idea of monarchy which was a result of his past experience in life. He argued that monarchy will bring about peace and unity and will help to attain the common good of the society by saying that ‘there is one king amongst the bees, and in the whole universe one god, maker and lord of all’ (On Kingship, 1949).
Firstly, the dialogue between Socrates and Thrasymachus starts with the question that justice is the interest of the stronger or not. For this Thrasymachus says: “…in all states there is the same principle of justice, which is the interest of the government; and as the government must be supposed to have power, the only reasonable conclusion is, that everywhere there is one principle of justice, which is the interest of the stronger.” (Plato, The Republic, book I, page 16) In this point, Socrates gets an idea that the government, the ruler or gold group of the city get a justice even when they are not right. The rulers always right, because they get a benefit by injustice. In this case, Thrasymachus’s point is when ruler gets a justice by injustice, and it is a winner. The ruled gets an injustice by justice, and it is a loser.
The rise of China’s economy and increased soft power is viewed as threatening to democracy. This essay will assess China’s actions based on Kant’s Triangle of peace to determine if this fear is rational or if China is becoming more peaceful by analyzing how the democratic peace and political economy international relations concepts apply to the China and what are its challenges going forward. According to democratic peace theory, democracies rarely go to war against each other. Non-democratic states do not allow their individuals the freedom to follow their dreams and detract from others’ freedom. One of the primary underpinnings of the democratic peace concept is the idea of liberalism.
He is also referred to as the father of sociology. Comte built a science able to adequately explain the laws of motion governing humanity over time and also attempted to draw up the conditions accounting for social stability in any given moment of history. His twin pillars systems are the study of socialists and social dynamics Man’s society is subjected to laws just as the rest of the cosmos. Comte developed a kind of empiricism which he named positivism. The idea states that rights of individuals are vital than the rule of no one.
If state and lawmakers are careful in identifyings societiy’s needs and problems, law should improve quality of life. The government’s foundation is in the consent of the governed. In a democracy, the citizens are sovereign which means they are the prime form of political authority. Power is from the people to the rulers of government, who hold power only temporarily. In a democracy, citizens are free to criticise the elected leaders and representatives, and to view how they deal with the matters of government.