. Liberalist are thinking how to create a peaceful relation among country up to relation among individual and one of the sytemic and deeper explanation is brought by a German philospher, Immanuel Kant with his essay entitled “Perpetual Peace” . His thought drive the direction of liberalism. Immanuel Kant believes to resolve the situation at that time,they need to find ‘state peace’. Kant is not envisage the establishment of a world government or even unite sovereignty, but more into a ‘loose’ federation that consist of free state which governed by the rule of law.
1. Woodrow Wilson’s vision for world peace included open communication and cooperation amongst nations. According to him, this can be achieved if countries stopped making secret deals and if they refused to engage in conquest. He emphasized the latter by claiming that the word can transform into a safe place through self-determination; every country has a right to “determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression.” Wilson applied this idea for self-determination in Points VI-XIII, in which he stated that fixing boundary disputes would ensure autonomy. Meanwhile, the first five points involve Wilson’s recommendations for foreign policy that would promote peace: prohibition of secret deals, freedom of the seas, removal of economic barriers, disarmament of all nations, and adjustment of colonial claims.
“Under this lies a fact never mentioned aloud, but tacitly understood and acted upon: namely, that the conditions of life in all three superstates are very much the same” (P196). This quote means that the purpose of war is to create equality among the three superstates. It implies that the contradicting Party slogan, War is Peace, is actually true. I know this because in Goldstein’s book, he describes how the three superstates all have similar philosophy views such as Ingsoc, Neo-Bolshevism, and Death-worship.
Nationalism made itself prominent during the 19th century while the continent attempted to maintain peace. Before explaining its impact on European history, it is best to explain the belief system itself. Nationalism is the ideology that people of a similar nationality or culture should unite in their culture and beliefs. Their political beliefs are that each political group should have political autonomy, as well as a tendency to favor liberal or democratic ideals. Along with shared political views, nationalists tended to unite with the economic views with liberals.
Montesquieu’s and Rousseau’s ideas of enlightenment were also incorporated in the document. The idea of the separation of power comes from The Spirit of Laws, a book written by Montesquieu to promote liberty and prevent tyranny. His theory of dividing political power and being shared equally among a variety of classes were important in order to prevent the abuse of power. It establishes that all men are to be created equal. Written by Jean-Jacque Rousseau, The Social Contract contributes on the concept of the general will and popular sovereignty .
Both the English Bill of Rights and Thomas Paine's Common Sense displayed interesting and creditable views regarding how to develop and maintain a well-functioning society through a well-structured government. The English Bill of Rights aligned a list of basic rights granted to individuals which included fair taxation and forbid cruel and unusual punishment. Common Sense is a well articulate essay that urges for the independence of the thirteen colonies from the British. In his text, Paine noted the importance of differentiating society and government, and condemned the practices of British monarchies (Paine, 62). Both documents theorized that political authority over the people should be fluid and well-constructed through a fair and equal governing body in order to ensure a equal and well-functioning society .
My Values of Equality Milton Friedman, an American economist, in his article “Created Equal”, points out his concept about “Created Equal”. Friedman discusses the different ways that humans are considered to be equal, and then he declares three specific categories for human equality: equality before God, equality of opportunity and equality of outcome. Friedman argues that the first equality is the Founders’ use, the second equality is compatible with liberty, and the third equality is socialism. Equality is such a beautiful word that everyone should appreciate, and Friedman claims his points about its concept from his own comprehension. I really respect Friedman’s points about equality; however, there is something critical about equality which
GLOBALIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND LAW Globalization and Technology Globalization has completely transformed the way in which the world and its people interact. Earlier there were several roadblocks in the ability to communicate and interact with the people worldwide. But now, the world is becoming more and more globalized in all spheres: Business, financial, social, economical, etc. Over the years, a lot of technological advancements have come into picture including the changes in the field of Information Technology, having a significant impact on the global landscape. This evolution in Information Technology and the major innovations made in it is a major driving force behind globalization, which actually set the cart rolling.
Bentham critiqued the existence of law and advocated legal reforms, e.g. that the liberty, the rights, ect. exist independent of the government. By this time now, he had maintained keeping his moral theory into the consistent practice. In 1904, Elie Halévy had studied the Utilitarian philosophy, and notes that there were three main charisartisics to “which constitutes the basis of Bentham’s political and moral philosophy: The greatest happiness principle, The universal egoism, and