This goes hand in hand with Newton's Laws of motion and universal gravitation. Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a gravitational force and Newton's law of motion states that every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force. Newton's Laws back up Kepler's laws by explaining how the planets orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci or center. The force that allows this to happen to the planets are explained by Newton's law and that the gravitational force is moving the planets into rotation, as by the law of motion. These forces assisting each other can make phenomenon's occur such as tides.
Galileo saw sunspots, the valleys, craters, and mountains of the moon, the 4 moons of Jupiter, and finally, the phases of Mars and Venus. Galileo also had many stimulating thoughts throughout his lifetime. Galileo believed that the 10 spheres surrounded the Sun, and not the Earth, and Galileo’s discovery of the phases of Mars and Venus had led Galileo to believe in this Copernican school of thought (of Heliocentrism), because the only way that Mars and Venus could have phases, is if they orbited around the Sun. Another phenomenon that Galileo thought of was the principle of inertia, and in this, Galileo had hypothesized that if uniform motion was applied to an object, it would move at an accelerated rather than a uniform force. Throughout Galileo’s lifetime, he said many things, and made many arguments.
He is considered one of the most influential contributors in the history of astronomy. The Greeks believed that the Earth was the center of the macrocosm and that the Sun, Moon, and globes revolved around it. Still, Aristarchus challenged this idea and proposed that the Earth actually revolved around the Sun . This was a major advance in the field of astronomy and marked the morning of ultramodern astronomy. Aristarchus was the first person to realize that the Moon revolves around the Earth.
During the Middle Ages a Roman Astronomer named Ptolemy came up with the theory that all surrounding planets orbited around the Earth. Advancement in telescopes and technology helped Copernicus during the renaissance create a more logical and accurate theory which stated how the sun is in the middle of our universe and all planets orbited the sun. This changed the way man thought because it realized how small Earth is compared to the rest of the solar system and how we may not be
Christian Gipson The Kinkaid School Dr. J English III Image: The Sun “... read somewhere that the sun 's getting hotter every year... it seems that pretty soon the earth 's going to fall into the sun- or wait a minute–it 's just the opposite–the sun 's getting colder every year” (pg. 118). Light as Deception Believe it or not, the sun’s diameter is approximately 864, 575.9 miles making it 400 times larger than the moon. Nonetheless, the two celestial bodies both appear the same size from earth because the sun is 400 times farther away than the moon.
Other scientists like Nicolas Copernicus believed in the Heliocentric Theory. At first, it didn’t explain how the planets orbits the way they did and was very hesitant to share it with others. In 1601, another scientist named Johannes Kepler proved that Copernicus idea was correct. They show that the planets rotate around the sun. Another method Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo developed was called the Scientific Method.
Some of the theories that the Greeks developed about astronomy were not always correct but they changed the way earth, the sun and the solar system were seen. Eratosthenes estimated that the earth’s circumference was about 28,000 to 29,000 miles when in reality it is 24,860. Aristarchus estimated that the sun was 300 times the size of earth and it actually is 1.3 million times the size of earth. Ptolemy thought that the earth was the center of the solar system and this is how people thought the solar system looked for 14 centuries. Some of the greatest mathematicians were Euclid, Pythagoras and Archimedes.
Born on December 27, 1571 in Weil der Stadt, Württemberg, Johannes Kepler wasn’t your first pick as a genius. A sickly child, Kepler didn’t look like the next mathematician or astronomer, but with an IQ of about 175, he became just that! After his intelligence was revealed, he obtained a scholarship to the University of Tübingen. He studied Copernicus and his theories, and it was there at the university where he found his love for astronomy. Later on, Kepler taught math, became a mathematician and astronomer, wrote multiple books, and devised multiple theories and ideas.
Thesis: Theology not only played a major role in Kepler’s scientific research, it also affected the reception and modern understanding of his work. One might wonder how a scientific man like Johannes Kepler was influenced by theology. The answer lies in his upbringing and education. Originally, the German was destined for a career as a Lutheran minister.
His impact influenced not only discoveries and ideas during the Scientific Revolution, but also modern science. To understand how Kepler developed his three laws of planetary motion, it’s important to first review the work of his predecessor, Tycho Brahe. After becoming a famous astronomer throughout Europe, and being the nephew of the man who had saved the life of the Danish King, Frederick II, Tycho Brahe was granted an island of his own to do his meticulous, astronomical observations. By 1580, Brahe’s palace on the island, Uraniborg, contained the instruments and observational tools (including a huge quadrant, synchronized clocks, and his observatory as a whole) needed to precisely measure the position
With Tycho’s data he was able to envision that Mars’ orbit would precisely fit an ellipse. Furthermore, he released his first law: Planets move in ellipses with the Sun at one focus. Referred to as the law of ellipses, it explains that planets are constantly orbiting the sun in a path described as a semi-circle (or ellipse). “An ellipse described by Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, is an oval shape traced by a point moving in a plane so that the sum of its distances from two other points, the foci, is a constant. Deduction, all planets orbit the sun in a path that resembles an ellipse, with the sun being located right at one of the foci of that
The circle of a planet is oval shaped where one center of the oval is the sun or Planets move around the Sun in ovals, with the Sun at one focus. A center is one of the two inward focuses that decide the shape of a circle. The separation from one center to any point on the orbit and after that back to the second center is always same. An oval is characterized by two foci and all focuses for which the total of the separations are the same. The closer together that these focuses are, the all the more nearly that the oval takes after the state of a circle.
Today virtually every child grows up learning that the Earth orbits the Sun, but four centuries ago the heliocentric solar system, where the Earth orbits the Sun, was so controversial that the Catholic Church classified it as a crime of heresy (UCLA). In the age of early philosophy, Socrates’ is well known. Between the Socratic method and his line of successful students, Socrates’ makes the history books. Galileo Galilei turned astronomers on their heads when he discovered moons around Jupiter. Giordano Bruno didn’t back down from any of his brilliant and different ideas.
He thoroughly elaborates and investigates the motions in longitude of the five planets and the size of their orbits in relation to that of the earth (Armitage, 1990, pg. 70). Nicolaus repeatedly overrides Ptolemy’s theory in this section of the piece. Book VI simply explains the movement of the planets in latitude. On May 24, 1543, Nicolaus suffered a hemorrhage, leading to the paralysis of his entire right side of the body. He died at the age of only 70.