Later on he presented his findings to the Royal Society, where Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne revealed that it actually had a planet like orbit, and did not seem to possess a tail like a comet would. It was the first new planet to be discovered by scientists. When it finally came time to name the planet, Herschel suggested naming the planet after his patron, King George III, in which it would have translated to Georgium Sidus, or George’s Star. Outside the limits of England, most people did not appreciate that suggestion. Other names suggested included his own last name, and ironically the name Neptune.
Because of my interest in Astronomy, I have picked "Astronomy: Discovery of Uranus by William Herschel in 1781". It was very educational for me to see, how the process of science worked in this particular case, and why it is so important for observations shared and discoveries to be replicated by others. I have based my observations on the work by Simon Schaffer, St. John 's College, Cambridge called "URANUS and the establishment of Herschel 's astronomy". Below is a breakdown of the assignment questions: What was the motivation that led to this discovery? William Herschel was only an amateur astronomer and at that time having a royal patronage was everything.
Its sharp vision has detected the farthest planets found so far. It captured the first visible-light image of a planet around another star,”(“Hubble Site…” 1). Although the Hubble has been in space since 1990, it is still making important discoveries towards interstellar travel. Telescopes have done an amazing job in helping scientists map out the stars, but traversing the dark, desolate nothingness of space requires a different use of
Galileo Galilei was born on the 15th of February 1564 and died January 8th 1642. Galileo’s life was a very interesting one, with many achievements along the way. While Galileo was at university he discovered he loved maths and wanted that to be his career, unfortunately his family was short on money, which had forced Galileo to leave university without a degree. Galileo’s main achievement was convincing millions of people to the Copernican belief (sun was centre of the solar system) as to the Aristotelean belief (earth centre of solar system). At the time (1600 hundredths) the main astronomical theory was developed by Aristotle, and he believed that the Earth was the centre of the solar system, and that different objects with larger mass would fall at different rates.
Considered the father of modern science, Galileo made major contributions to the fields of physics, astronomy, cosmology, mathematics and philosophy. Curious with the world and stars around him, he designed an improved telescope which allowed him to view the moons surface, and as far as the rings of Saturn. In the 16th and 17th century, that is quite a feat. Also, Galileo had great contributions to the beginning phases of laws of motion. Having done many experiments of the rate in which objects fell, helping him develop the concept of inertia.
The heliocentric view of the universe theorized by astronomers Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler, and later refined by Galileo was well known in most European academic circles. Yet, like most universities in Europe, Cambridge was steeped in Aristotelian philosophy and a view of nature, resting on a geocentric view of the universe, dealing with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms. During his first three years at Cambridge, Newton was taught the standard curriculum, but was charmed with the most advanced science. He spent all his spare time reading from the modern philosophers. The result was a less-than-stellar performance, but one that is understandable, given his dual course of study.
Galileo Galilei also was in Astronomy and was known for Projectile Motion, Galileo was a confirmed Copernican and given to the concept of circular motion. Galileo 's 'facts ' differed from the traditional data of astronomy in that they were derived from qualitative telescopic observations. Some of the observation data that he collected from the telescope was that the phases of Venus were inexplicable in terms of Ptolemaic cosmology; Ptolemaic scheme no longer viable and the satellites of Jupiter, moving with, and approximately in the same plane as the planet, suggested more than one center of rotation in the solar system and, by analogy, the earth 's rotation around the sun. In his later theory (1632), no force is necessary to keep a body moving on a level (frictionless) plane; a body, as such, has no inclination to move or remain at rest, it is indifferent. Thus, if a body is indifferent to motion, no mover is required to sustain movement once a
Over time, Galileo recorded information based of his observations of the moon and other celestial bodies. Eventually, Galileo was able to come down to the conclusion that the sun was located at the center of the universe and reinstate Copernicus’ Heliocentric theory. Galileo finally published his findings about the heliocentric theory because he disregarded how the church would react. As a result, his publication was banned by Pope Urban VIII because it once again went against what the church believed. The Catholic Church reacted in a pessimistic manner because they saw Galileo’s publication as an insult after supporting him in the past.
In the pre-Copernican era, geocentrism was the paradigm for astronomers and philosophers. There were some thinkers, such as Aristarchus and Oresme, prior to Copernicus who advocated for heliocentrism or other models. However, the majority of philosophers and scientists held on to the physics and models of Plato, Aristotle, and Ptolemy. Nicholas Copernicus caused the paradigm shift from the idea that the Earth is stationary and central, to the idea that the Earth rotates and revolves around the sun. In De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium, Copernicus explains his stance on the shapes, movements, sizes, and positions of celestial objects (Danielson 104).
Their technology could seem like magic to us or God like. Could this be why the Egyptians, Inca, and Mayans are all interested astronomy? Or is it because they know they were not alone and that “the essential function of any religious dualism is obviously ontological - to account for a duality of opposed principles in being, even when the two principles are not regarded as coeternal: this underlines the cosmological-cosmogonic, anthropological, and sociological functions and expressions of dualism” (Grinspoon n.p.). Early civilizations were just trying to make understanding of the world and how it worked; that is why we see ancient religions with many gods that could be human or animal like. What if “God was an extra-terrestrial?