The idea is that a behavior that is followed up by unwanted consequences is not likely to be repeated. The opposite of that is that behavior that is reinforced is likely to be repeated. Reinforcement was a new concept that Skinner brought onto the scene. Operant conditioning may be used to control behavior using negative and positive
Behaviorism is a philosophical position which says that psychology could be a science, but focus its attention on what can be observable such as environment and behavior versus what is available to individual opinions, thoughts, images and feelings. All behaviors are developed through conditioning which occurs through connections with the environment. Behaviorists believe that all behavior response is shaped to environmental stimuli. Behaviors are a reinforcement which gives an idea that a pattern of the same behavior can be selected by the consequences. When we talk about free will it is well thought out to be a misconception because the environment we live in determines our behavior.
The neutral stimulus in classical conditioning does not create a reaction until the point that it is combined with the unconditioned stimulus (US). The second stage is during conditioning. Amid this stage, a stimulus which delivers no reaction is related with the unconditioned stimulus (US) and soon thereafter it now winds up known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The third stage is after conditioning. In this stage, the conditioned stimulus (CS) is related with the unconditioned stimulus to make another conditioned reaction (CR).
A drive creates an unpleasant state; a tension that needs to be reduced. Hull believed that human behavior could be explained by conditioning and reinforcement. The reduction of the drive acts as a reinforcement for that behavior. This reinforcement increases the likelihood that the same behavior will occur again in the future when then the same need arises. In order to survive in its environment, an organism must behave in ways that meet these survival needs.
Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour. In operant conditioning, there are positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment. Positive reinforcement are favourable events or outcomes that are given to the individual after the desired behaviour. This may come in the form of praise, rewards, etc. Negative reinforcement typically are characterized by the removal of an undesired or unpleasant outcome after the desired behaviour.
The term behaviorism referred to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors (Staddon, 2001) . And this behavior could be researched scientifically . According to Pavlov, "Respondent Conditioning” resulted from the association of two stimuli, such as causing dogs to salivate at the sound a tuning fork. Consequently, Skinner developed “Operant Conditioning” where the “Stimulus-Response” association was elicited through selective reinforcement (rewards or punishments) to shape behavior. In this regard, behaviorism assumed that a learner was a passive recipient and responding to environmental stimuli.
He developed operant conditioning, because he believed that the first type of learning; Classical conditioning, didn’t do justice in explaining the complexity of human behaviour. He thought that the best way to understand why humans behave the way they do was to look at what causes an action and the consequence (punishment or reinforcement) of the action, for this reason operant conditioning was developed. Skinner’s work was based on Edward Thorndike’s law of effect which stated that; satisfying responses are more likely to occur again and dis- satisfying responses are less likely to occur again. Skinner added the term reinforcement to the Law of effect, where reinforced behaviour is more likely to occur again and behaviour that is not reinforced is not likely to occur again, he studied operant conditioning using a ‘Skinner’s Box’ or operant
Whereas, maturation is a natural process that modifies the behaviour without special condition of stimulation such as experience and practise. Maturation and learning are highly interconnected factors that affect the development of a child. Maturation is one of the important factor which helps learning and at the same time maturation limits the development to a certain point even if
Here ‘learning’ is used to explain the personality of a person. Internal thinking, emotions etc. which are internal to a person are not of importance in these theories. They must either be explained through behavioural terms or eliminated altogether. Behaviour is the reaction (response) to a stimulus.
They take classification data and a rule-based theory as input which are the result of a rule-based learner with the hopes of producing a more accurate model of the data (Hekenaho 1997). The majority of rule-based models that have been developed are heuristic, meaning that rational analyses have not been provided and the models are not related to statistical approaches to induction. A rational analysis for rule-based models could presume that concepts are represented as rules, and would then ask to what degree of belief a rational agent should be in agreement with each rule, with some observed examples provided (Goodman, Griffiths, Feldman, and Tenenbaum). Rule-based theories of concept learning are focused more so on perceptual learning and less on definition learning. Rules can be used in learning when the stimuli are confusable, as opposed to simple.