(2012), parenting styles are crucial agents that influencing all aspects and stages of a child 's development. According to Maccoby & Martin (1983) (as cited in Ishak et al., 2012) parenting is a continuum and includes two significant elements “responsiveness” and “demandingness”. According to Baurmind (1991); the parental demandingness refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys’’ and responsiveness refers to ‘‘the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s special needs and
CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study focused on the Attachment theory in which it is stated how attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment theory is a theory that’s connected to psychology, studied first by John Bowlby. It explains the relevance of getting attached to something in an individual’s development. It is observed among children relying on their parents for stability, and that there is an existing need for them due to such reliance. The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance.
Through factors such as cognitive development of the infant, attentive care and intimate interactions with a primary caregiver, the attachment relationship is created – shaping the infants- caregiver bond. By examining the interactions between an infant and their primary caregiver, we can identify secure, insecure and disorganized attachment (Ainsworth, 1978; Cassidy 1994); which can reveal a great deal about the relationship between the infant and attachment figure. Overall, the quality of attachment bonds formed in the early years can have long lasting effects on an infant’s emotional security and social competence; not only shaping their ability to form relationships, but laying the foundations for the social, emotional and mental development of the
It directly affects his/her temperament. • The child’s temperament can affect how they view themselves and their ability to successfully complete tasks (Angela Oswalt, 2008). Emotional relationships with others during this stage are exhibited through the development of empathy and social competence. It is a very crucial development and it depends on the child’s relationship with his/her parents, siblings, peers, and caregivers. Social development in early childhood The term social development is inter-related with emotional development in the early childhood stage.
Microsystem Talks about the closest person to a child and the person who may have exact contact with a child while growing up. In this situation we may include places like home, school, day-care, or work. A microsystem normally covers family, peers, or caregivers. Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional. In other words, your reactions to the people in your microsystem will have effect on how they treat you back.
In a society rife with gender stereotypes and biases, children regularly learn to adopt gender roles which are not always fair to both sexes. As children move through childhood and into adolescence, they are exposed to many factors which influence their attitudes and behaviours regarding gender roles. These attitudes and behaviours are generally learned first in the home and are then reinforced by the child‘s peers, school experience, and television viewing. However, the strongest influence on gender role development seems to occur within the family setting, with parents passing on, both overtly and covertly, their own beliefs about gender. This overview of the impact of parental influence on gender role development leads to the suggestion
Introduction Attachment is the emotional bond between a child and parent. This bond can shape the way in which the child's emotional and social development can phase out throughout it’s lifetime. Both attachment and temperament have shown robust associations with children’s peer functioning (Berlin et al,, 2008.) Early attachment within the child's life has an impact on the developing brain, which can result in lasting effects at a neuronal level (Schore, 1994.) Of course the importance of attachment does not cease right after a child s early life, however the focus of my essay is to be concentrated on the different theories and studies associated with early life attachment.
Orhungur (1990) emphasised that the socio-economic status of the family plays a significant role in determining their cultural background. An individual’s perception about the society and his interaction with it is mainly determined by his childhood experiences at home. A child’s personality is moulded chiefly by the family set up and its socializing nature (Abosede M. Ewumi). The kind of motivation the students receive from their diverse environments has a great influence on their attitudes to education and educational practices. Hence it is clear that students’ attitude and performance is dependent on the stimulus the home provides.
According to the American functionalist sociologist Talcott Parsons, the family’s main functions are ‘primary socialisation and personality stabilisation’. Primary socialisation is the processes in which children learn the cultural norms of the society they are born into. For Giddens, personality stabilisation refers to the role that the family plays in helping adult family members emotionally (2001). The family is considered exceptionally
Attachment Style Bretherton (1992) states that attachment style is the result of the internalization of early experiences with caregivers, principally the relationship with the primary caregiver. Attachment style is developed by caregivers. Babies come into the world and immediately begin interacting with another person According to Ainsworth & Bowlby, the biological attachment of infants to the primary caregiver influence the child’s mental health, that is important for healthy psychological and social development of the child. The relationships between babies and their caregivers affect the people develop their relationships with others. There are 3 types of attachment style, secure attachment style, Avoidant attachment style and Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment style.