The level of distress the child reaches is an indication to the quality of attachment that the child has. The child’s actions such as crying, playing and paying attention to the caregiver and stranger are recorded by the researchers. Through the strange-situation test, Ainsworth was able to distinguish between attachments that seemed secure as well as those that seemed insecure, or anxious(Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters and Wall
This essay will now look more specifically at the findings that have emerged which both support and challenge the relevance of Bowlby’s theory. To understand the behaviour of children and adolescence it is crucial to look at Mary Ainsworth’s findings; she showed that Bowlby’s concepts could be empirically tested. Ainsworth provided a stimulus for the immense amount of research that is continuing to develop the theory. Ainsworth’s Strange Situation studies (1970’s), where babies were separated from their mothers and styles of attachment were categorised based on the babies reactions to separation, were central in developing Bowlby’s attachment theory. Depending on the style of attachment, behaviour would be understood and even predicted.
This essay will explore what attachment theory is and its implications for the social and emotional world of the child and also highlight one of the government policy that supports positive parent and child relationships. FORMATION OF ATTACHMENT John Bowlby (1907-1990) was a British Psychiatrist who originally highlighted the important of a a child’s attachment relationship. He was influenced by the theory of ethology and the study of imprinting by Lorenze (1935). Used ducklings to prove that attachment was innate and has survival value. Other theorist also emphasis on the reason children are attached to their caregivers.
The first dimension related to efficacious role played by parents to enhance honouring social norms, values and conventions which parents expect their children to adopt whereas the second dimension is the emotional ties between parents and their children (Dwairy et al., 2006; Power, 2013). Baumrind had identified three behavioural patterns in preschool children: firstly, was “assertive, self-reliant, self-controlled, buoyant, and affiliative”. Secondly, “discontented, withdrawn, and distrustful”. Thirdly, “little self-control or self-reliance, and retreat from novelty” (Baumrind, 1967; Power,
Each phase develops on a basis of psychosocial crisis, such as intimacy versus isolation, or initiative versus guilt. Through each crisis, a basic virtue is established, such as hope. The first psychosocial phase of development occurs from the moment of birth to the age of about one and a half years. During this phase, infants are faced with the crisis of trust versus mistrust; infants are trying to determine whether the world is safe or if it should be feared, and the goal is to establish the virtue of hope in the infant. Given consistent and dependable care, infants will begin to gain a sense of trust in their caretaker.
John Bowlby was born in London in 1907. He studied and trained in psychoanalysis when it was still a new discipline (Crain 2011). Bowlby became interested in attachment when he undertook voluntary work at a school for maladjusted children. He began to notice a correlation between bad behaviour in children and the challenging backgrounds from which they came. It was his experience with two particular children, who came from such backgrounds, that was to shape the direction of his future career (Ainsworth 1974).
Child health assessment and interaction model is developed to assess the mother –infant interaction with the environment. Toddlers’ behavior is influenced by the caregivers and the environment in which they live. Here this model is used to assess the behavioral problems of toddlers. Positive aspects in the interaction of child ,caregiver and environment such as availability of grand parents to look after the child, adequate family income, ability to interact with children of same age group and neighbors produces healthy and growth promoting behavior in the child whereas negative aspects like care by nonparents, attending day care or play school ,congested home or day care environment , health problems of caregiver result in unhealthy or growth hindering behavior of the child like development various behavioral problems. Key words: Child, Caregiver, Environment, Interaction Introduction Conceptual model or theoretical models are used in nursing research provides an organizing structure for the study.
Another way that is interesting in infant nonverbal communication is allowing infants to play with each other. “In order for babies to feel secure and relate to other babies they need what is called a primary caregiver and continuity of care. Free play in a safe, developmentally appropriate environment with peers is another basic requirement. The Pikler approach makes a case for a firm surface where babies can be with each other and free to move. At Pikler Institute, caregivers place babies who are past the newborn stage on their backs in a playpen large enough for a group.
We even repeat our own parent’s non-verbal gestures to us. It is important to know your child can literally sense your interest and sincerity in them, as well your approval or disapproval in them. Attunement and attachment are related. Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. The earliest bonds formed by children with their parents have an important impact that continues throughout their life.
‘The family...has been identified as an important symbol of collective identity, unity and security.’ (O Connor, cited in Mcdonald, 2009) Historically in family life, children were cared for at home primarily by the mother, siblings or extended family until they entered formal education at around four years old. The Catholic Church had considerable influence on family life and the education of children particularly up to the 1970’s. Increasing numbers of women began to enter the workforce both in Ireland and other industrialised countries at this time. Fallon believes: This was partly due to ‘the lifting of the marriage bar in the civil service and the beginnings of movement towards parity of pay and rights for women.’ (Fallon, 2005:5) Shorter maternity leave in Ireland resulted in more mothers of young children being employed than in other OECD countries. (CECDE, 2005:6) House prices began to rise in central parts such as Dublin which forced families to move to