To address the concept of attachment as outlined by John Bowlby (1953), the author shall define attachment theory and behaviour; look at some key influences on Bowlby that led to the development of attachment theory; discuss some key concepts involved and the implications for understanding child and adolescent behaviour. Attachment theory is a psychological theory and a biological drive which has evolved to safeguard the survival of the defenceless young (Prior and Glaser 2006). Proximity to an attachment figure is sought when the child senses threat or discomfort. Attachment behaviour, according to Bowlby, is “a form of behaviour that results in a person attaining or maintaining proximity to some other clearly identified individual who is
Another key feature of Attachment Theory are internal working models. These working models are created patterns of attachment, usually formed during childhood development, that affect relational attachments in adulthood. These models represent feelings about oneself and others, which contribute to their behavior in their relationships with others. A person’s internal models are usually subconscious, but can change with a cumulative experience, either positive or
Attachment theory is the combined work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991). John Bowlby formulated the basic principles of this theory to explain the emotional bond between infants and their caregivers (Fraley & Shaver, 2000). Bowlby explains that a motivational system, called the attachment behavioural system, I based on an evolutionary model which states that “genetic selection” preferred attachment behaviours, because they increased the likelihood of protection and provided survival gains, such as feeding, social interaction, and learning about the environment, while in close proximity to the attachment figure (Cassidy & Shaver, 2008). Further, Bowlby (1969) developed the idea of attachment to highlight the role
The attachment is shown by some behaviors in infants, such as needing closeness with the attachment figure when upset or threatened, the infant uses the figure as secure base that the child can use when in need of security and comfort (Bowlby, 1969). Any caregiver is the attachment figure who provides most care for the infant and is their primary social communication.This can be biological parents or anyone who the infant feels the attachment with. According to Bowlby there are 4 stages in attachment formation: Pre-attachment, attachment-in-the-making, clear-cut
McGoldrick, Gerson, & Petry (1985) define family as “those who are tied together through their common biological, legal, cultural, and emotional history and by their implied future together”. It is one of the most powerful systems we as humans will belong to (Carter & McGoldrick, 2005, as cited in McGoldrick et. al 1985). Murray Bowen, a psychiatrist, was one of the developers of mainstream family therapy (Corey, 2008). Bowen defined the family system as an emotional system and a principle driving force in the development of clinical problems (Kerr, 2000).
Attachment plays a crucial role in the development of young children, and the social skills of children as they grow into adulthood. Looking at attachment from a low socioeconomic stand point reveled many interesting trends within individual’s attachment styles. It was made very clear to me throughout my research on this topic just how vital attachment is for individual development. The attachment theory came about as Mary Ainsworth and Jong Bowlby were researching young motherless children in a hospital after world war 2. They realized what negative effects this motherless environment enacted and wanted to further understand.
Sable (2013) suggested that a relationship with a family pet, especially a dog or cat, reflects certain aspects of attachment which may result in a sense of comfort and connection to individuals. Sable came to this conclusion using the ethological-evolutionary framework of attachment, neuroscience, and animal studies. He concluded that there is now convincing scientific evidence that companion animals have positive effects on psychological and physical well-being, helping shape how people regulate their emotions, deal with stress or trauma, and relate to others (Sable,
However, the things that occur with the presence of an attachment are really difficult to understand, and this is the reason why attachment theorists emerged. Perhaps the most prominent of this group of theorists, John Bowlby was the first psychologist who started an extensive study on attachment. According to Bowlby's Attachment Theory, attachment is a psychological connectedness that occurs between humans and lasts for a long period of time. To Bowlby, attachment is what keeps a baby connected to his mother, considering the needs of the child that can only be satisfied by his
One of the main theories in Developmental psychology is the attachment theory that was devised by Bowlby (1969) and was added to in 1973, by Mary Ainsworth. The attachment theory surrounds the bond between a primary care giver and a baby. They believe that attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space. In 1930 Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist in a children’s unit, where he treated many emotionally disturbed children, this lead him to consider the relationship between mother and child and the impact that could have on the child’s development. Bowlby believed that the attachment process was an all or nothing process and that you either were attached or were not attached.
Each child is unique in their own way, but the way they are raised can have a grand effect on their mental health and how they treat other later in life. We are born the same but not raised the same which can lead to differences in our behaviors. Mary Ainsworth has provided us with so much research on how an infants behavior is towards attachment in these experiments she held. Before a baby has become attached their behavior is more ken towards that specific
It’s time to find out the pros and cons to pet ownership with children. Many people feel that households with young children should not have pets although pets have many positive health, social and Educational benefits to children. While there are a number of negative aspects to owning a pet, there are so many more positive benefits to people who have animals in their lives. It is true that animals can be potential carriers of transmittable