The attachment style that an infant develops with their parent later reflects on their overall person. Bowlby 's attachment theory had vast investigation done by Mary Ainsworth, who studied the interactions between mother and child, specifically, the theme of an infant’s investigation of their surroundings and the separation from their mother. This essay will focus on Bowlby’s attachment theory and Mary Ainsworth’s experiments and findings, discussing their views on the development and importance of attachment in early life. John Bowlby’s primary interest was in the relationship between child and mother or primary caregiver. Bowlby suspected that the earliest relationships formed by children and their primary parent or care giver, have huge impacts on the child’s later life.
John Bowlby has contributed a lot to the Attachment theory by his works and experiments. In the 1930’s John Bowlby performed an experiment in a clinic named child guidance. He examined many sensitively distressed and worried children. As a result Bowlby judged the significance of the child’s relationship with their mother. He said that a child is connected to his mother through communal, affecting and cognitive development.
Analytic enquiry of the middle child: While we talk of the middle child and their behavior perhaps Bowlby 's attachment theory could bring more insight as we look into life of the middle child earlier in their life. Bowlby believed that that mental health and behavioral problems could be attributed to early childhood. Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically preprogrammed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive. This attachment is primarily done with the mother and that humans have been actually developed a biological need to stay attached to the mother. Bowlby postulates that this attachment figure this single attachment was a secure base for the child to hold on to and explore the world.
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
Critically evaluate the evidence on children’s early social development in relation to Bowlby’s views on attachment. Positive intimate relationships with spouses, relatives and friends are incredibly important to mental health in adulthood. John Bowlby 's Attachment Theory shows how relational patterns set early in life affect emotional bonds later in life. In 1958, psychologist John Bowlby pioneered "attachment theory," the idea that the early bond between infant and caregiver, and the infant’s need to be close to the caregiver is critical to a child 's emotional development and have a biological basis to ensure survival. The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant 's needs establish a sense of security in their children.
In an effort to understand the experiences of mothers raising children with Cerebral palsy more especially after the diagnosis, the Double ABCX model will be utilized as a framework to provide such understanding. This model is based on the family stress theory and adaptation (Plunkett, 1997). 2.4.1. OVERVIEW OF THE DOUBLE ABCX MODEL OF FAMILY STRESS The original ABCX Model was developed by a sociologist named Reuben Hill in 1958. According to Plunkett (1997) the ABCX model proposed that variation in the extent to which families and their members experience what he termed ‘’crisis’’ (the X factor) that resulted from family stress, depended upon a combination of the particular details of the stressor event (the A factor), the social, psychological
Theories (Erikson & Attachment) According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, trust vs. mistrust, occurs in the first year of life. Erikson believed that the caregiver’s response to the infant’s cries help them develop a sense of trust, when the caregiver responds right away to the infant’s distress of crying or fussing (Mooney, 2000). Erikson believed that in the earliest years of life, mainly during infancy, patterns of trust or mistrust are formed that control, or at least influence, a person’s actions or interactions for the rest of life (Erikson, 1950). Bowlby hypothesized that children are born with a predisposition to be attached to caregivers and that children will organize their behavior and thinking in order to maintain those relationships (Bettmann, 2006). Thus, suggesting that caregiver relationships are crucial to children’s psychological and physical survival.
UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN CARIBBEAN MARACAS ROYAL ROAD, MARACAS, ST. JOSEPH. Individual Assignment 1.1 An Assignment Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course PSYC 454 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY INSTRUCTOR: Ms. Narsha James. By Cindy Osborne-Applewhite 17 January 2018 Approval………………. According to the American Psychological Association (2018), “Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.” In the book Theories of Personality, the authors went even further to state, that Personality is not only a set of distinctive characteristics, but that it was possible for personalities to change from time to time depending on the circumstances. When a child is born its mind is a blank slate, therefore personality develops as a result of nature and nurture.
Freud 's psychosexual theory of development. Sigmund Freud was a Viennese physician who developed his psychosexual theory of development. His theory is based on the idea that parents play a critical role in managing their children 's sexual and aggressive drives during the first few years of life in order to nurture their proper development. As his structural model suggests that id, the ego, and the superego are three interworking parts which consists in personality. According to Freud’s theory, the stages of psychosexual development must be successfully met for proper development.