According to Bowlby (1969) attachment is a” lasting psychological connectedness between human beings. he argues that babies are born innate that needs to attach to a human figure. The foundation of attachment starts from the mother’s womb, hear her voice and this make a baby nurtured and comforted. According to Ainsworth attachment (1979), Attachment is “an crucial part of the ground plan of the human species for an infant to become attached to a mother figure”. FORMATION OF ATTACHMENT Attachment develops gradually in a space of time rather than suddenly.
Critically evaluate the evidence on children’s early social development in relation to Bowlby’s views on attachment. Positive intimate relationships with spouses, relatives and friends are incredibly important to mental health in adulthood. John Bowlby 's Attachment Theory shows how relational patterns set early in life affect emotional bonds later in life. In 1958, psychologist John Bowlby pioneered "attachment theory," the idea that the early bond between infant and caregiver, and the infant’s need to be close to the caregiver is critical to a child 's emotional development and have a biological basis to ensure survival. The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant 's needs establish a sense of security in their children.
Parenting styles literature review At present, it is well known that parents are not the only ones who contribute to the socialization process in children but they are still the main key concept in child development and socialization of children in society as the constitutes the first element of socialization for human beings (Maccoby, 1992). The relationship between parents and their children has a significant influence on the children, the parental styles are considering as effective elements that help the child to shape their view of themselves and their world (Santrock, 2005 as it cited in Sartaj and Aslam, 2010). Pinquart (2017) stated that there were two of perspectives had been adopted in parenting literature: first; a dimensional
Each phase develops on a basis of psychosocial crisis, such as intimacy versus isolation, or initiative versus guilt. Through each crisis, a basic virtue is established, such as hope. The first psychosocial phase of development occurs from the moment of birth to the age of about one and a half years. During this phase, infants are faced with the crisis of trust versus mistrust; infants are trying to determine whether the world is safe or if it should be feared, and the goal is to establish the virtue of hope in the infant. Given consistent and dependable care, infants will begin to gain a sense of trust in their caretaker.
Bowlby(1958) suggested that attachment can come from the caregiver providing safety and security for the infant. According to Bowlby, babies actively seek close proximity with their caregiver when under stress or threatened(Prior and Glaser,
The children of authoritarian parents tend to be controlled through shaming, the withdrawal of love, or other punishments and reasons for rules are not usually explained (Baumrind 1966). According to the research of Baumrind parenting styles shows results of predicting child well-being in the key areas of social competence, academic performance, behaviour and psychological development. Children and adolescents from authoritarian families tend to perform moderately well in school and be uninvolved in problem behavior, but they have poorer social skills, lower self-esteem, and higher levels of depression (Baumrind
Although parents may differ in how they exert control or socialize their children and the extent to which they do so, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, educate, and socialize their children. The authoritative style of parenting has the following characteristics: an expectation of independence and mature behaviour from the child and clear setting of standards by the parents; firm enforcement of rules and standards, using commands and sanctions when necessary; encouragement of the child’s independence and individuality. Baumrind (1991), stated that in parental control and support, authoritative parenting style is high. She found that the
His theory is helpful for child development and adults too. The five Erikson’s stages of development are trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, competency vs. inferiority and the last one is identity vs. role confusion. Freud and Erik’s theories have some similarities and differences in some stages of development. In the first stage of Freud’s theory he says oral stage is the weaning process where the child must become less independent upon caretakers. At the stage of 1st year Eric says it’s the stage of trust vs. mistrust.
Trice’s (1995) review of Ginzberg’s theory stated that during the fantasy choice, “children … aspire wifely and impulsively with the principal constraints being the father’s occupation and parental suggestions”. Ginzberg (1988) didn’t hint parental again until the tentative and realistic choice stages, in which he stated that children much, “work out a compromise between their interests, capacities, and values, and the opportunities and limitations of the environment”. It can be inferred that these “opportunities and limitations of the environment” may include parental influence, although he did not mention it specifically. He did however, say that the families were too relaxed by saying to children: “You make any choice you want. All I want is for you to be happy” (Ginzberg, 1988).
Whether that be a short or long period. Maternal Deprivation occurs when an attachment is ‘broken’. He also believes that the attachment figure does not have to be the mother of the child. It is known that Bowlby was in fact brought up by his nurse maid, Minnie and his Nanny, Nanny Friend. This is perhaps why he believes it doesn’t have to be the mother who gives the child love and affection in their early years.