With those reformers and wars, it changed Europe forever. Martin Luther was a Protestant reformer who criticized the Church’s ideas of selling indulgences in 1517 (Textbook). Luther believed that people could only be saved through faith in God. Protestantism encouraged people to choose their own religious beliefs, that led to the formation of Calvinist, Anglican, and Presbyterian churches alongside the Lutheran church, which had already existed. Luther nailed his
Many important and notable people drove this cause, and they acted as reformers. Some noteworthy reformers are Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli. These men stirred and aroused thoughts of people throughout countries, and they brought about major and impactful change. Because of their efforts, the church, and therefore people's ideas, were transformed. Perhaps the least well known of the three men is Ulrich Zwingli.
Luther was a former Catholic monk who wrote the 95 Thesis document and nailed it on the door of the Catholic Church of Wittenberg. Once this happened many people all throughout Germany began to react to his convictions. He exposed the church for what he believed to be corrupt. Different protestant denominations began to spring up and they were in conflict with other Christian sects about the matter of how best to worship God.
Europe had a political landscape at the time. After all of his research and investigation he translated the Bible into words common people could actually understand. He also started the Reformation which had many effects on the world. He brought free thinking to the masses because he believed everyone should have access to the Word of God. The Reformation ended up going much further than Luther had ever intended.
Puritan influences shaped the colony’s government. For example only land owning men who had a church membership could vote (T 62). The Puritans establishment of a state religion also influenced the establishment of smaller more tolerant colonies around Massachusetts and the actions of the Puritans towards the natives. The settlers justified their mistreatment and cruelty, such as the burning William Bradford describes, “It was a fearful to see them thus frying in the fire, and the streams of blood quenching the same; and horrible was the stink and scent thereof: but the victory seemed so sweet sacrifice, and they gave the praise thereof to God,” (Doc D), as the will of God. John Winthrop said in particular “If God were not pleased with our inheriting these parts why doth he still make roome for us by them diminishing as we increase?” (T 67).
In 1517, indulgence salesman Johan Tetzel came to a town near Wittenberg. Luther wrote a letter of protest to Archbishop Albrecht von Brandenburg; he included 95 theses that criticized papal abuses and indulgence sales. His theses were printed and circulated in Germany. His opinions preceded what would later become the Protestant Reformation, which had a lasting impact on the Catholic Church. Luther felt strongly about many aspects of the Church and made his opinions known during his lifetime.
This map shows the individual houses built closely together with the church erected in the middle of the village shows how the Puritans’ ideas greatly influenced the settlements near New England. The Puritans had many strict moral codes regarding the behavior of the people, such as no dancing, card playing, or skipping church services. Severe punishments awaited the culprit, including flogging, sitting in the stocks, or even banishment. Roger Williams was a well-educated clergyman who was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of his religious beliefs. In “A Plea for Religious Liberty”, he explains how the Puritan’s uniformity would end in destruction (F).
Disobedience is seen all over the world, specifically in Europe, in Russia and in the United States of America. Oscar Wilde makes a valid claim about disobedience promoting social progress. There are many examples of disobedience throughout history. Most have led to reforms and societal progress. An example of disobedience is the reforms of the church made in the 1000’s and 1100’s.
I remember back to when I was a child, hearing about the First Great Crusade. A military expedition launched by the Christian states of Europe against the Saracens, to conquer the Holy Land. It had caused a great deal of social chaos in this world. I heard about how the Crusaders overran Jerusalem, creating a citywide massacre of men, women and children. It was said that the streets ran with blood.
Calvinism made their laws from the Bible, and they eventually became the government's laws as well. This caused sinning to become a crime, that was punished by the Calvinist clergy, and eventually, they would be tried by the local court. Lutheranism began in Germany after Martin Luther was excommunicated in 1521. After, he was condemned