In Philabus, Plato states that when harmony of the soul is disrupted, one becomes self-ignorant, and can acquire a false sense of beauty, wealth, and virtue. Within these three distorted categories, are those who have the power and strength to avenge themselves and be hurtful, and those who don’t and are harmless. The former are considered odious, while the latter are considered ridiculous. In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle uses the metaphor of a balance scale, where the extremes
Arthur Schopenhauer was a 19th century German philosopher whose ideology is a prime example of philosophical pessimism. Schopenhauer was strongly influenced by Plato and Immanuel Kant, as well as by Eastern religions like Buddhism, yet he rejected the prevalent at the time post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism and optimism. He believed that humans live in a world dominated by a malignant metaphysical “will to live” which causes our lives to consist only of suffering in the form of pain and boredom. In order to at least somewhat alleviate this endless strife of life, Schopenhauer proposed the adoption of an ascetic mindset. “Studies in Pessimism” is a selection of essays from Schopenhauer’s Parerga (Greek for “Appendices”), the first
In this reference to Transubstantiation, it is very apparent that Hume’s concern is more of a display of his hostility to Christianity both on intellectual and moral grounds than the miraculous dimension of the dogma. Thus in these historical narration he is contending that no human testimony is persuasive enough to establish a miracle so as to use it as a foundation of any system of religion. The section on miracles is divided into two parts corresponding to the two sorts of reason employed by Hume to drive home the above contention. Part one consists of a general proceeding apriori to indicate principles that should govern the acceptance of testimonies of whatever past experience. In part two he illustrates aposteriori, the reason why miracles
The church had a strong belief that everyone must do whatever the Bible says with nothing more and nothing less. When people started doubting and challenging traditional customs, they were losing interest in the religion and began to think of life scientifically. In 1554, John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian published Commentaries of the First Book of Moses in which he stated “all ordinary people endowed with common sense...the study should not be prohibited nor this science condemned”(D2). Calvin states that religious beliefs should not interfere with science and the people of it are only discovering the admirable wisdom of God. Also, in 1695, Gottfried Leibniz, a German philosopher in his “New Stems of Nature” said “God governs mind...these very movements of matter being produced for the happiness of the good and the punishment if the evil”(D12).
and how they operate independently. This, in turn, allows us to better articulate how to contribute to the wellbeing of society as a whole. This is known as the Functionalism Theory; to understand the whole of society you first must understand its separate structures and they contribute. Functionalism was pioneered by Auguste Comte, he believed that is was closely related to the overall view of the field of Sociology. Although, Functionalism was closely related to the overall view of sociology, it did not gain prominence until the twentieth century through Talcott Parsons and Robert K. Merton.
This essay concentrates on Herbert Spencer theory of evolution, it will be presented by dividing his theory to four parts, firstly the similarity of the Society and Biological creature, secondly Evolutionary Phases of Societies thirdly, the Industrial and Militant Societies and finally The ultimate man and the final form of Society and each part of them will include the detailed description and the criticism. Spencer was influenced by the early positivism and that made him use a biological metaphor, and the social body (Levine, 1995). The metaphor with Spencer was more than another philosopher because he argued that the social body preserve itself, as a physical body would do, by appropriating from the earth what they need from clothes, food and so forth (McKinnon.2010) . Despite the fact that Spencer was influenced by comets work he also disagrees with him in many cases, for instance, Comte believed that the high priests of positivistic religion should lead the society and
In particular, ideas are defined by their opposites, and these pairs are known as binary oppositions. For example, the meaning of “good” must be incomplete without knowing the meaning of “evil”, and thus language and ideas are provided with a holistic structure. In this paper, the binary oppositions present in Oedipus Rex will be analysed with reference to the methods of anthropologists Claude Lévi-Strauss and Jean-Pierre Vernant. Their work was integral in developing structuralist literary theory in the early 20th century, and though they differ in their approaches to the analysis of myth, both base their ideas on the concept of binary oppositions. Binary oppositions in a cultural context are not entirely symmetrical – due to dominant cultural ideologies, there will always be one idea that is preferred over its opposite.
When examining the Gorgias, by Plato, and Beyond Good and Evil, by Nietzsche, both author’s give their opinion of truth. Plato believes that truth can be used to defeat rhetoric, and even more importantly, that a philosopher king could use it to lead the masses. This claim is based on the notion that absolute truths exist, the masses aren’t fit to rule, and the philosopher king would have unopposed power. As for Nietzsche, he believes that “every truth is a partial truth or perspectival fiction” (Nietzsche xxiii). This is because everyone, including philosophers, hold a specific position on an issue and cannot possibly know everyone’s position, leading to a biased truth.
Durkheim – he was a sociologist social psychologist and philosopher. He was born on 15 April 1858. He is also known a the father of sociology. He was concerned wih how societies could maintain their integrity in modern era where traditional values could have any value. He helped I the establishment on sociology as a new academic deciplain ,he also wrote about the effect of laws religion education forces on social integration and last with the practical implication of scientific knowledge.
Although, Hardy claimed that the novel had little to do with his life. As for his main character Jude, we cannot say that he is merely based on the author himself. Jude Fawley might be a portraiture of all men, outsiders, who refused to comply with the social standards. While I was analysing the story, I began to see similarities between Jude and the naturalist Charles Darwin (since I’m quite familiar with his life). It’s not a coincidence that Hardy and Darwin both lived in the late Victorian England and according to biographers, Hardy was interested in Darwin’s works and science in general.