Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver’s Travels, is fundamentally skeptical of philosopher John Locke’s views as expressed in his writing, The Second Treatise of Government. Locke holds the belief that when individuals are pursing self-interest within the realm of economics and politics that they are serving the common good regardless of intent. However, Swift disagrees and uses satire to express his hesitancy. The reason for Swift’s skepticism is that his purpose differs from Locke’s. Locke uses individualism to justify private property as a common good so that men may profit, whereas Swift depicts individualism as corrupting to human morality in order to further discredit modernity.
Peter Reed says it "satirizes an obsession with equalizing,” basically taking the whole story as a representative of egalitarianism (29). The exaggeration by the American public to help and aid those at a disadvantage, usually a Leftist belief, is brought to the extreme by doing the opposite by bringing down those who succeed to meet the level of those at the disadvantages. Hattenhaurer stated that Vonnegut 's non-fiction has normally satirized the Right and endorsed the Left (387). However, he doesn’t not claim that Vonnegut is on the Leftist side of total equality and classless society. Hattenhaurer actually claims that his story satirizes the American definition of freedom as the greatest good to the smallest number (389).
Laissez-faire means “let-it-be” or more defined as “a phrase expressive of the principle that government should not interfere with the action of individuals, esp. in industrial affairs and in trade” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2014). Smith was a firm believer in international trade as he believed it benefited both parties involved. Self-interest of others, including workers was important to Adam Smith; which was his primary attack on those who favored slavery. Smith and other classical economists favored the market process but not that of monopolies and lastly; classical economists, sympathized with those who were poor and felt that when others were impoverished and unhappy then the rest of the nation would be unhappy as well.
Sorel 's Reflections on Violence is not a mere intellectual endeavor; rather, it is a revolutionary guideline. As Chiaria Bottici notes in A Philosophy of Political Myth, this Sorel 's text 'clearly has an activist intent: to develop a severe critique of the parliamentary socialists and their neglect of the primary role played by proletarian violence in history ' (Bottici 2007, 159). In Reflections on Violence Sorel tries to develop a specific revolutionary ethics which will be true to the genuine Marxism. He explicitly states that the task of his study is 'to deepen our understanding of moral conduct ' (Sorel 2004, 40). It is crucial that moral conduct is associated here with political practices and,
The economy has no advantage position in regarding the social structure, but is one social fact among others. Durkheim defines a social fact as an external thing that has intimidating force by which it exercises control over an individual thus this control can be economics, but it can also be philosophical. In fact Durkheim considered religion to be the important factor on the economy as well as law, morality, art, and political forms. Durkheim defined the term anomy as a condition where social norms are confused, unclear, or simply not present, this lack of norms inevitably causes irregular behaviour. Durkheim also argued that anomy could result from a sudden disturbance, crisis or rapid change of social and economic forces.
In his book, Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville states that there “exists also in the human heart a depraved taste for equality, which impels the weak to attempt to lower the powerful to their own level, and reduces men to prefer equality in slavery to inequality with freedom.”1 However, equality does not exist in the material world because it is a supernatural ideology. Attempting to achieve it would be futile, as it cannot be gained in this life. Instead of equality, recognition of the dignity of all people and justice toward all is sought. Since equality is impossible to gain on this earth, Americans prefer liberty. This paper will prove that Alexis de Tocqueville 's assertion is false.
What if there were no rules in a dystopian community? We live in a world without the overstated rules, without order, without having to be impeccable, but we have freedom an individuality. “Dystopia” is defined as a fictional world where people live under a highly controlled totalitarian system, where individual identity is suppressed and families no longer exist. Rules and orders are negatively portrayed in dystopian societies and are acclaimed to take away the freedom, choice, and individuality. Henceforth, to inhibit the control within the community, the rules should be restricted.
These beliefs align with the philosopher Karl Marx, known as the father of communism who promoted an egalitarianism way of thinking. These actions would be opposed by conservatives as there would be a lack of motivation to improve certain products since everyone receives equal pay. This also causes the government to have overwhelming control over the lives of
There is no way of working out of the condition of them being us and us being them. Gangster and nongangster alike are immobilized in the vacuum left by the untenability of the American dream for a post-Vietnam, post-Watergate society. Nor are we left aghast by the situation. If Michael is a monster, we realize and accept why he has to be one. The man must do what he does; his choices are made for him and not by him.
Postmaster is described as a conventional man and represents a patriarchal society where a man cannot view any emotions and relationships as a woman can and this is the only thing that gives rise to a feminist argument in the story. The postmaster is a story that primarily deals with the human relationships- the unconventional relationship between Ratan and the postmaster. The bond they shared had no meaning, just mutual attachments and understanding. Tagore with his story very well came up with oddities of human nature and its aspirations, that despite knowing the harmful consequences of something, the moment we depart from it, the desire to embrace those mistakes grips us again. RELATION WITH OTHER TEXTS- DELHI: A novel by KHUSHWANT SINGH is a book set up in Delhi, which shares the theme of unconventional relationship with the text between the narrator and a hijra named Bhagmati.