The argument Jean-Paul Sartre, a French philosopher, presents on existentialism helps to prove the foundation which is “existence precedes essence”. Existentialism is normally understood as an ideology that involves evaluating existence itself and the way humans find themselves existing currently in the world. For the phrase existence precedes essence, existence’s etymology is exsistere or to stand out while the term Essence means “being” or “to be” therefore the fundamental of existentialism, literally means to stand out comes before being. This can be taken into many different ideas such as individuals having to take responsibility for their own actions and that in Sartre’s case the individual is the sole judge of his or her own actions. According to him, “men is condemned to be free,” therefore “the destiny of man is placed within himself.” This ideology revolves around an individual’s personal concern, commitment, and how unique they are.
Both within Deontological and Utilitarian Ethics, the regulatory ideal implies an objective inherent value which justifies the possibility of making moral judgements. Nietzsche marks a shift in paradigm by reframing the regulatory ideal and implicitly the fundaments of its justification. To better understand what Nietzsche’s Moral Philosophy is, we must also take a brief overview of his Philosophical paradigm. For the purposes of this paper I will only use and highlight particular aspects, as a full, in-depth description would risk a deviation from the point which needs to be made. Nietzsche’s shift is a radical one, in the sense that he rejects both „Ancient” and „Modern Morality”.
This essay will focus on Merleau-Ponty’s account of our relations with Others, as well as its relation to Sartre’s philosophy and how effective of a critique Merleau-Ponty offers to the Sartrean understanding of our relationship to the Other. Throughout the essay i shall refer to the relationship between the Individual and the Other, this is simply to mean the relationship found between the ‘I’ and the other humans they interact with who have questionable similarity to the ‘I’. Our relationship to Others is a significant area of discussion because it opens the problem of Other Minds, which entails the idea that I, as an individual, cannot verify that any other individual I interact with is conscious in the same way I am. Both Sartre and Merleau-Ponty
Frege and Geach on Assertion In this paper I will analyse Frege’s view on Assertion (as discussed in his papers “Sense and Reference” and “Thought”) followed by an account of Geach’s defence of this idea. Frege holds relevance in the history of analytical philosophy for proposing a sense to bridge the gap between what is said and what is heard and thus educating us about what is ‘expressed’. But among his rather rigid theory about how language works, he also advances an even more obscure theory about how assertion works. On Frege’s account, an assertion is any thought acknowledged as a judgement. There is no other parameter for an assertion to be called so.
Since Buber’s views on the features of the dialogue depend on his views of the notion of realization, the essay will begin with a brief account of his overall thoughts about realization. Based on these considerations the position of the notion of realization in human existence will be discussed. After that we can appreciate the Buber’s philosophy of dialogue. Lastly, on the basis of this insight, I will try to show what are the remarkable implications of this kind of thought for our existence, for our life. 1.
Internal Dimensions The internal dimensions of a theory act as guidelines to describe a theory to enhance understanding of the approaches used to evolve it and in identifying gaps in the theory. The first dimension is the rationale on which the theory is built. The components of the theory of self-transcendence are united in a chain-link and it is based on certain sets of relationships that are deduced from a small set of basic principles and are therefore hierarchical in nature. The second dimension to consider is that of the system of relations. In the theory of self-transcendence, the elements explain relations.
The aim of writing this paper is to explain Descartes argument of the existence of the material world. I will walk through different stages in order to explain each idea stated by Descartes. In order to prove the existence of such a world Descartes passed through two moves: the first is by showing that material objects could only be the cause for the existence by excluding out the possible alternatives. The second move is to consider the nature of material objects and show that such attributes could only be possessed by real existent bodies. In this paper I will examine both moves by explaining them and finally I will end my paper through logical conclusion about the existence of the material world.
General Remarks In the first chapter of the essay utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill begins by observing something of a crisis in moral thinking: essentially, people have been unable to come to any agreement on what philosophies the notions of "right" and "wrong" are based on. Having portrayed this problem, Mill introduces utilitarianism as a prospective solution. He argues that it is already indirectly used as a standard, and that it achieves the requirements of being a first principle. It is imperative to note that Mill explains morality 's purpose as bringing about a specific state of the world. Mill defines this context through which to understand morality as the essential one.
Reflective history is when people look back on an event, action, or situation and analyze it in order to understand why it happened and how it influenced the world today. On the other hand, philosophic history needs a little more defining before people are able to connect it to history. When one thinks of philosophy and history they define it as a deep thought or consideration of the events in the past, but what it really does is add to the definition of history the concept of reason. As Hegel said “The only thought which philosophy brings with it, in regard to history, is the simple thought of Reason – the thought that Reason rules the world, and that world history has therefor been rational in its
However, Paul (1990) criticized these definitions, since he believes that these definitions rely on concepts such as reasonableness or reflectivity that are not defined well. Elder and Paul (1994) assert that critical thinking is the ability of thinkers to take control of their own thinking and develop logical criteria and standards for analyzing and evaluating their own thinking. “These definitions emphasize the metacognitive aspect of critical thinking, independent thinking, and the importance of learning to assess thinking (your own or someone else’s) according to normative standards” (Reed, 1998, p.19). Some researchers believe that the origin of these differences has rested in the various theories and models in two distinct disciplines: philosophy and psychology study. Reed (1998) claims that philosophers have focused on the nature and quality of the products and outcome of critical thinking.